*an electron ejected from the nucleus when a neutron decays to a proton
*increases atomic number by one
*a helium nucleus
*charge = 2+
*ejection reduces atomic number by 2 amu and atomic weight by 4 amu
*usually emitted with beta radiation
*has neither charge nor mass
*part of the electromagnetic spectrum; travels at the speed of light
Compare a chemical reaction to a radioactive reaction
In a chemical reaction the elements’ bonds are broken and new molecules are formed.
In a radioactive reaction, new elements are formed; nuclei are changed.
The net energy required to decompose a molecule, atom, or nucleus into its constituent particles.
Write the nuclear equation: U238 loses an alpha particle
92U238;; 90Th234 + 2He4
Write the nuclear equation: Th234 ejects a beta particle
90Th234;; 91Pa234 + -1e0
A reaction produced during nuclear fission when at least one neutron from each fission produces another fission. The reaction is self-sustaining. This process takes place when a bomb is detonated.
The time it takes for half of a radioactive sample to decay. Can range from a fraction of a second to years. “Carbon dating” is commonly used to determine the age of fossils by measuring the proportion of the radioactive isotope C-14 in a sample.
The conversion oa an element to a new element due to a change in number of protons. e.g. alpha or beta decay
The breakdown of heavy nuclei into lighter nuclei. Source of “nuclear power.”
The joining of lighter nuclei to form heavier nuclei. Source of the sun’s energy.