F324 module 1 key words

arene
compound containing one or more benzene rings
aromatic
derived from the latin ‘aroma’ meaning fragrance
Addition polymer
A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).
Addition reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
Alicyclic hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
Atomic orbital
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins.
Average bond enthalpy
The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1?mol of a given type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species.
Carbanion
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a negative charge.
Carbocation
An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
Chiral carbon
A carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms.
cis–trans isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which each carbon of the C=C double bond carries the same atom or group: the cis isomer (Z?isomer) has that group on each carbon on the same side; the trans isomer (E isomer) has that group on each carbon on different sides.
Covalent bond
A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
Curly arrow
A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair during the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
Dative covalent
A shared pair of electrons in which the bonded pair has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only; also called a coordinate bond.
Delocalised electrons
Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms.
Displayed formula
A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) which is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
Electrophilic substitution
A type of substitution reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
Elimination reaction
The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
Empirical formula
The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
Enantiomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other; also called ‘optical isomers’.
Functional group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions.
General formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series. For example, the general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2.
Hydrolysis
A reaction with water that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds; the H and OH in a water molecule becomes incorporated into the two compounds.
Intermediate
A species formed in one step and used up in a subsequent step and so never seen as either a reactant or a product.
Nomenclature
A system of naming compounds.
Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) which is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
Optical isomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other; also called ‘enantiomers’.
Oxidising agent
A reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species.
Peptide
A compound containing amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Often the number of amino acids is indicated by the prefix, di-, tri-, tetra-:
pi-bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals.
Polar molecule
A molecule with an overall dipole, having taken into account any dipoles across bonds.
Reflux
The continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry.
Retention time
The time for a component to pass from the column inlet to the detector.
Skeletal formula
A simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups.
Stem
The longest carbon chain present in an organic molecule.
Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
Structural formula
A formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
Structural isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms.
Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms.
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containing multiple carbon-to-carbon bonds.
Zwitterion
A dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. As both charges are present there is no overall charge.