F324 Module 2 flashcards

Addition polymer
A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).
Addition reaction
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
Biodegradable substance
A substance that is broken down naturally in the environment by other living organisms.
Biodegradable polymer
A polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and water.
Chiral carbon
A carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms.
cis–trans isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which each carbon of the C=C double bond carries the same atom or group: the cis isomer (Z?isomer) has that group on each carbon on the same side; the trans isomer (E isomer) has that group on each carbon on different sides.
Condensation reaction
A reaction in which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule such as water.
Degradable polymer
A polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture.
Dehydration
An elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.
E/Z isomerism
A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
Enantiomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other; also called ‘optical isomers’.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
A type of lipoprotein that can remove cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation.
Hydrolysis
A reaction with water that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds; the H and OH in a water molecule becomes incorporated into the two compounds.
Isoelectric point
The point at which an amino acid has no overall charge.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
A type of lipoprotein responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues.
Monomer
A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer.
Optical isomers
Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other; also called ‘enantiomers’.
Peptide
A compound containing amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Often the number of amino acids is indicated by the prefix, di-, tri-, tetra-:
pH
pH = –log[H+(aq)]
Pharmacological activity
The beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from monomer units.
Repeat unit
A specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again. Repeat units are included in brackets, outside which is the symbol n.
Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
Zwitterion
A dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. As both charges are present there is no overall charge.
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