final!

hydrogen bonds are

weak

between electro negative atoms and hydrogens bonded to O, N, or F 

hydrogen bonds cause
water’s high surface tension, low vapor pressure, high specific heat capacity, high heat capacity, and a high boiling point
thingers with two
BrINClHOF
heat of vaporization
amount of energy it takes to vaporize 1 g of something
ice
honey comb structure
heat of fusion
amount of energy needed to freeze one g of something
water absorbs
a lot of shit
solvent
what shit is disolved in
solute
shit that’s disolved
solvation

when stuff dissolves

Things split apart 

some ionic compounds won’t split because the attractions between the ions is too strong;

electrolyte
when dissolved in water or melted, it conducts electricity
nonelectrolytes
most organic compounds
weak electrolytes

organic acids and bases

HgCL2;

strong electrolyte

inorganic acids and bases

NaOH;

gas in liquid colloid
whipped cream
gas in solid colloid
marshmellow
liquid in liquid colloid

emulsion

mayonaise;

liquid in gas colloid

arisol;

fog
solid in gas colloid
smoke
solid in liquid
blood
solution characterisics

particles, small, .1-1nm, ions, atoms, etc

no scattering of light

does not separate

nonfilterable

homogenous

;

colloid characteristics

large molecules or particles

1-100 nm

tyndall effect

doesn’t separate

non-filterable

borderline homo/hetero (bi) 

suspension characteristics

large particles or aggregates

100 nm or larger

gives tundal effect

separates

filterable

heterogeneous 

water of hydration

water in a crystal

salt-dot-number of water-water

CuSO4 dot 5 H2O 

hygroscopic

pulls water out of the air 

deliquesensts
pull so much water out of the air that they form solutions
things that affect how fast shit dissolves
agitation, tempurature, size of particles
saturated solution
solution with the maximum amount of solute in it at a given tempurature
soluability
how much solute it takes to hit saturation
miscible
when two liquids can mix into eachother
Henry’s Law

the solubility of a gas (S) is direcrtly proportional to the pressure of gas above the liquid (P)

;

s1/p1=s2/p2;

supersaturated
when a solution has more solute than it should
dilute concentration
not much solute
concentrated solution
a lot of solute
Molarity
# of moles in 1 L of solution
making a dilution

trying to turn a solution less concentrated

M1xV1=M2xV2;

percent by volume
volume of solute/volume of solutionx100%
percent mass/volume
mass solute(g)/solution volume (ml) x 100
colligative properties
lowwer vapor pressure, higher boiling point, lowwer freezng point
boiling point elevation
difference between the boiling point of a solution and a pure solvent
freezing point depression
difference between freezing temp of solution and pure solvent
Molality

little m

moles solute/kg solvent;

mole fraction
mols solute/both solute and solvent
delta tb
change in boiling temp
m in delta tb=mkb
molar concentration of solution
collision theory
reactions happen when things hit each other hard enough and at the right angle
activation energy
minimum energy particles must have to react
activated complex
top of the energy curve
things that affect reaction rates
temp, concentration, particle size, catalist
inibitor
something which interferes with the work of a catalyst
chemical equilibrium
when the forward and reverse reactions are going at the same rate
when pressure changes

it goes to the side with more moles of gas

(I may die later);

le chatelier’s principle
when you put stress on a system (more reactants) it’ll it’ll move
free energy
energy avalible to do work
spontaneous
an equation that naturally favors reactants
exergonic
spontaneous
entropy
disorder
law of disorder
shit gets more disordered
keq
keq=([c]^cx[d]^d)/([a]^ax[b]^b)
keq<1
reactant favored
keq>1
products favored
spontinaity calc

spontinaity prod-spontinaity reac

if more than one whatevs, times 

gibb’s free energy
delta g=deltah-tdeltas
order of rate law
add exponents