Final

Binary Compounds
a chemical compound composed of only two elements
Diatomic Gases
elements that are present in the gaseous state as molecules composed of two atoms (O2, N2, Cl2, H2, F2, I2, Br2)
Polyatomic Ions
a charged ion composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded
Oxidation Number
a number assigned to an element in chemical combination that represents the number of electrons lost
Hydrate
a compound, typically a crystalline one, in which water molecules are chemically bonded to another compound or an element (a solid with water in it)
Anhydrous
containing no water
Mole Mass
a number equal to the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule
Molecules
a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction
Empirical Formulas
a formula giving the proportions of the elements present in a compound but not the actual numbers or arrangement of atoms
Conservation of Mass
a principle stating that mass cannot be created or destroyed
Chemical Equations (States)
aq – dissolved in water
l – liquid
s – solid
g – gas
Reactants
a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
Product
a substance that is formed as the result of a chemical reaction
Catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
Endothermic
energy taken in, feels cold to the touch
Exothermic
energy given off, feels warm to the touch
Coefficients
a number placed in front of a molecule in a chemical equation representing the number of atoms needed
Subscripts
a number placed after an atom in a molecule in a chemical equation stating the number of atoms needed to stabalize the charge
Test for Hydrogen
light a splint of wood
stick it in gas
if you hear a pop then there is hydrogen
Test for Oxygen
light a splint of wood
blow it out
stick it in gas
if relights then there is oxygen
Limiting Reactant
the reactant that is used up; once it is all used, the reaction stops
Excess Reactant
the reactant that is not used up
Absolue 0
the temperature at which there is no molecular motion
Air Pressure
caused by the number of collisions of gas molecules
-standard pressure = 1 atmosphere = 760mmHg = 760torr = 101.3 Kpa
Altitude
air pressure decreases with altitude
Barometer
measures air pressure
Temperature
measure of average kinetic energy of particles
Changes of State (6)
Melting
Sublimation
Vaporization
Freezing
Deposition
Condensation
Melting
solid to liquid (endothermic)
Sublimation
solid to gas (endothermic)
Vaporization
liquid to gas (endothermic)
Freezing
liquid to solid (exothermic)
Deposition
gas to solid (exothermic)
Condensation
gas to liquid (exothermic)
Volatile
becomes gas easliy
Boyles Law
when pressure goes up, volume goes down, inversly related (P1V1=P2V2)
Charles’ Law
when temp goes up volume goes up, directly related (V1/T1=V2/T2)
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
n = # moles
R = ideal gas law constant
Combustion of a Hydrocarbon
the combustion of any hydrocarbon always produces the same products: CO2 and H2O (carbon dioxide and water)
Melting Point
of water is 0*C
Freezing Point
of water is 0*C (melting point = freezing point)
Boiling Point
of water is 100*C
Precipitate
when a solid settles out of a solution (the solid is the precipitate)
Precent Yield
find the amount of product theoretically possible by using the given amount of limiting reactant and stoichiometry

divide the amount of product actually produced in the chemical reaction by the amount of product theoretically possible
Multiply by 100 to make a percent (ideally close to 100)

Molecular Mass
the mass of a molecule
Diffusion
gas spreading out
Effusion
gas leaking out of opening
Graham’s Law
the mathematical expression of the relationship between mass of particles and rate of diffusion/effusion
Amorphous
random arrangement, melts over a range of temperatures; examples –> glass and wax
Crystalline
geometric patterns, definite melting point; examples –> sale and water
Mole
contains Avogadro’s number of atoms
Distilled Water
water that has been purified (chemically pure)
Activation Energy
energy needed to start a reaction (match for the bunsen burner)
Avogadro’s Number
6.02 x 10^23
Kelvin
standard temperature is 273 Kelvin (0*C)
Polyatomic Ion
used in compounds just like monatomic ions (Mg2 or N –> one atom), use parenthesis around the polyatomic ion only if more than one is needed, most are negative and end in ‘ite’ or ‘ate’
STP
means standard pressure and temperature, which is 1 atmosphere and 273 Kelvin
Standard Molar Volume of Gas
1 mole of any gas at STP has the same volume as 22.4Liters
Gay-Lussac’s Law
when temp goes up pressure goes up (directly related) P1/T1=P2/T2
Combined Gas Law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 (always use Kelvin)
Ideal Gas
at 0 Kelvin would have no volume
Stoichiometry
1st write balanced chemical equation
2nd the given amount, must be converted to moles
3rd use the mole ratio to change given moles into moles of what you are trying to find
4th convert these moles into grams if needed
Molarity
(M) moles solute/ L solution
Molality
(m) moles solute/ kg solvent
Saturated
no more solute may be dissolved in a solvent
Unsaturated
being able to dissolve more solute in a solvent
Supersaturated
a solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute
Ionization
a state of an atom that has had at least one electron removed
Dissociation
when a substance is placed in water, the water molecules pull the other molecules apart
Indicators
a substance that indicates the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution through color change (litmus paper, pH paper)
pH
measure of hydrogen ion concentration
Net Ionic Equation
involves everything in the equation but the spectator ions
Spectator Ions
an ion that exists in the same form on both the reactant and product sides of the equation
Titration
an acid or base solution of known concentration is mixed with and acid or base solution of unknown concentration
Neutralization
reaction between an acid and base which produces a neutral solution (pH 7)
Hydrocarbons
made of hydrogen and carbon
ending in ‘ane’ means only single bonds present
prefix tells number of carbons
meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec
-alkanes are saturated (full of hydrogen)
Benzene Ring
a cyclopentene with 3 double bonds
H2SO4
sulfuric acid
HCl
hydrochloric acid
NO
nitric acid
AlPO4
aluminum phosphate
FeSO4
iron (II) sulfate
BeF2
beryllium fluoride
Strontium Nitrate
Sr(NO3)4
Rubidium Sulfide
Rb2S
Cobalt (II) Sulfate
CoSO4
Carbonic Acid
H2CO3
Nitrogen (IV) Oxide
NO2
5 Types of chemical reactions
synthesis
decomposition
double displacement
single displacement
combustion