Final Exam – 1

What are the branches of chemistry?
– Analytical- Biochemistry- Inorganic- organic- Physical
Matter
Has mass and occupies space
How is matter classified?
– Elements- Compounds- Mixtures
How is matter changed?
physically and chemically
What are the types of mixtures?
HeterogenousHomogeneous
What is a heterogenous mixture?
not uniform
What is a homogenous mixture?
have uniform properties
Law of conservation
mass of reactants = mass of productsmass is neither created or destroyed
Density formula
Density = mass/volume
percent error formula
|error|/accepted x 100%
Error formula
accepted – experimental
What is qualitative measurements?
descriptive, nonnumerical form
What is quantitative measurements?
gives results in definite form, usually as numbers and units
Converting celsius to kelvin
K=C+273
What does Dalton’s atomic theory say?
1. All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms2. Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element.3. Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine with one another in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds.4. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are seperated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of one element, however, are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction.
What did J.J. Thomson do?What experiment did he do?
Discovered electronscathode ray tube!
What did Robert Millikan do and how did he do it?
he figured out the charge and mass of electrons with the oil drop experiment
Whats in an atom and where are the parts located?
Protons and Neutrons – in the nucleus- Electrons: orbiting the nucleus
What is atomic number?
Number of protons in the nucleus(this also equals the number of electrons)
What is mass number?
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What is an isotope?
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
What is atomic mass?
a weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occuring sample of the elements
Who constructed the first periodic table and how was it set up?
Mendeleev-increasing atomic mass
Who constructed the periodic table used today?How did he arrange it?
Henry Moseleyincreasing atomic number
What are the names of the groups on the periodic table?
-Group 1: alkali metals-Group 2-13: transition metals-Group 17: halogens-Group 18: noble gases
What is an anion?
a negatively charged atom
What is a cation?
a positively charged atom or group of atoms
What are characteristics of binary molecular compounds?
– End in ide- prefixes: mono-dec- all upstairs(above the stair-like break in the periodic table
What are characteristics of binary ionic compounds?
– No prefixes- end in ide- upstairs and downstairs
Characteristics of ternary ionic compounds
– No prefixes- ends in ate or ite- polyatomic ions(on your bookmark…)
Characteristics of binary acids
– Prefix: Hydro- ide -> ic
Characteristics of Ternary Acids
– No prefix- Polyatomic ions(on your bookmark…)- ate -> ic- ite -> ous
What is the shape of the s orbital?
spherical
What is the shape of p orbitals?
dumb-bell
How do you get the first quantum number?
It is the coefficient of the outermost energy level (aka the biggest number)
How do you get the second quantum number?
the orbital its in: s=0; p=1; d=2; f=3
How do you get the third quantum number?
it depends on where you land. The center circle is 0 and you act like its a number line
How do you get the 4th quantum number?
if the orbital you land in is full, then the last quantum number is -1/2. If the orbital you land is half full then the last quantum number is +1/2
What does Aufbau principle say?
Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first.
What does the Pauli exclusion principle say?
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons
What does Hund’s rule say?
WHen electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins
What does the Heisenberg uncertainty principle say?
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
What do anions end in?
ide
What do alpha particles shield?
it’s stopped by paper
What do beta particles shield?
it’s stopped by wood
What do gamma particles shield?
some of them are stopped by lead or concrete
What are properties of metals?
high electrical conductivity and high luster when clean
What are properties of non-metals?
nonlustrous and are generally poor conductors of electricity
What are characteristics of metalliods?
elements with properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals
How do you find protons?
Protons = Mass number – neutrons
What are transmutation reactions?
the conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another element. [You need to know how to do this.]
What did Schrodinger do?
quantum model
Bohr’s Model
he proposed that electrons travel in definite orbits around the nucleus
Analytical Chemistry
composition of substances
Biochemistry
living organisms
Inorganic chemistry
do not contain carbon
Organic chemistry
contain carbon
Physical Chemistry
theories and experiments that describe the behavior of chemicals
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