Final Exam

silicon
Example of an element:
0.00001
what is the expanded form of 1X 10-5
10-9 M
nanotechnology is the development of tiny devices in the range of
amorphous
pure solids composed of discolored atomic substances
liquids
emulsions are colloids in which both components are
solution
another term for a homogeneous mixture
tin
substance added to iron as a component of steel
18K
if a ring is 75% gold by mass, the ring would be labeled as:
ratio of mass to volume
density of a material is
density is less than water
ice floats on water becasue
physical process
the dissolving of sugar crystals in water to produce a solution is a
evaporates
person detects the odor of perfume because it
gasoline
which is the most volatile?
Mt. Everest
which place on earth would the boiling point of water be the lowest?
water and carbon dioxide
the products of a burning candle are:
number and type of atoms are equal on both sides and sum of charges are identical
What is a true statement for equal chemical equations
incomplete combustion
the main cause of measurable amounts of CO from automobile engines
nitrogen
important element that is the focus of fertilizers production
electrostatic forces
electrons are held within the volume of an atom by:
8
what number of electrons in the last shell is required to have a stable atom that is unreactive
CmHm+2
alkanes have the general formula:
n
which letter before an alkane designates a straight chain hydrocarbon?
oxygen+helium
what two gases, when mixed, helps to prevent a deep sea diver from experiencing “the bends”?
six electrons in the last shell
what makes a true Group VI element?
bonds and nonbonding electrons
lewis structures are diagrams that represent
electronegativity
the relative ability of an atam to attract electrons in bonds to itself
sodium
which metal ion is linked to high blood pressure?
LPG
which fuel has the greatest caloric output per volume of gas?
CmH2m
alkenes have the general formula
120 degrees
all the bond angles of ethene are:
is carcinogenic
benzene is harmful to human beings because it
homogeneous mixture
gasoline used in motor vehicles is
branched alkanes
fuels that contain the following have the best burning characteristics
greater the fewer carbons in the compound
in general, the vapor pressure of an alkane hydrocarbon is
benzene
example of an aromatic molecule:
carbon, chlorine, and fluorine
CFCs are compounds of
fire extinguishers
halon is banned in developed countries and was used as
plastic
a material that an be molded
HDPE
polymer used in plastic milk containers
thermoplastic
plastic that when heated softens but does not compose
monomer
small molecule that successively combines to form parts of a long chain
6
polystyrene’s recycle number
neither perspiration nor water drops can pass through the material
gore-tex clothing is effective because
alternating single and double bonds
polymers which conduct electricity have this molecular structure
vulcanization
adding molten sulfur to rubber helps to retain its resilence
HDPE and LDPE
most commonly recycled polymer
graphite
an allotrope of diamond
methane
PAHs in the form of Benzo[a] pyrene, a human carcinogen, is produced from incomplete combustion of:
lubricant
because of its structure, graphite makes an excellent
C-O-C
Ethers are organic compounds that have the general structure:
ethyl alcohol
C2H5OH is called
diabetes
what is not a detrimental effect of drinking too much alcohol?
equal to twice the % of alcohol
proof value of drinking alcohol is
hydrophillic
the -OH portion of an alcohol molecule is
sweet
alcohols with a multiple -OH group can be identified as
acetone
simplest of all ketones
vinegar
diluted form of acetic acid
aldehyde
what causes a hangover
lactic, malic, and tararic
examples of alpha hydroxy acid
latex
dispersion of water soluble chemical constituents in natural rubber
geosmin
responsible for the earthy aroma of freshly dug soil
vitamin D
poor absorption of calcium results from low levels of
fructose
sweetest of all monosacchrides
glucose
insulin assists in the metabolism of
rum
molasses is used in cooking and production of
6 C atoms and 6 -OH atoms
what structure gives “sugarless” gum its sweetness
absence of specific enzymes for hydrolysis
difficulty of digesting lactose is caused by
putting it in the refrigerator
bread can become stale by
unbranched glucose polymers
cellulose is
fats
what has the highest energy content per gram
carboxylic acid
general formula RCOOH represents
at least on double bond
Fatty acids that are unsaturated
oils
fats that are liquids at room temperature are called
unpleasant odor
one of the most obvious characteristics of amines
pyridine
a benzyne ring with a nitrogen atom substituting for one carbon
nucleotides
subunits of DNA and RNA
guanine
this is a purine
hydrogen bonding
formation of the double helix 2 structure of DNA is due to
sugar
the D in DNA is
chain of amino acids
polypeptides are
peptide bond
bond between amino acids in proteins
composed and the nitrogen is excreted in urine
any excess amino acids not required for protein synthesis are
glutamic acid
amino acid which is the source of umami
mRNA
serves as the template for protein synthesis in the extranulear region of a living cell
tRNA
carries single amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis
phenylalanine to tyrosine
in PKU disease, an enzymme is lacking which converts
D enantiomer
biologically important to monosaccharides
pork
richest source of thiamine
B1
thiamine is what vitamin?
riboflavin
vitamin B2
C
What vitamin is water soluble?
K
vitamin helps in blood clotting
C
vitamin deficiency that can cause scurvy
E
vitamin that is an antioxident
benzoic acid
additive to preserve food
they have a very low LD50
PCBs are very common industrial organochlorine chemicals and have been a problem in our environment because _______
it has a high LD50
An important organophosphate insecticide is “malathion” because _______
incinerators
Currently, which is the greatest source of anthropogenic dioxins in the environment?
aldicarb
Which of the following is most toxic to human beings?
x

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