Final Exam

What is Chemistry?
The Study of matter and its make up.
What is the Scietific method?
Scientific approach to solving problems
What are the steps involved in the scientific  method?

ask questions 

do back ground research 

construct a hypothesis

do experiment

analyze data and draw conclusion 

communicate your results

What is the difference between precision nad accuracy?
Accuracy means getting a result that is close to the real answer. Precision means getting a similar result every time you try.
Measurments always have?
Uncertainty
The last digit of a measurement is always?
Uncertain 
Know how to count significant digits (or  figures)

Zeros appearing between nonzero numbers are significant

Zeros appearing infront of nonzero numbers are not significant 

Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal are significant


rounding off

If the digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 do not change the rounding digit. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0.


If the digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, your rounding digit rounds up by one number. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0.

Know how to figure out the number of sig digits involving addition and subtraction.
When quantities are being added or subtracted, the number of decimal places (not significant digits) in the answer should be the same as the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers being added or subtracted.
Know how to figure out the number of sig. digits in calculations involving multuplication and division.
In a calculation involving multiplication, division, trigonometric functions, etc., the number of significant digits in an answer should equal the least number of significant digits in any one of the numbers being multiplied, divided etc.
What is scientific notation?

0.00675 is the same as 6.75 x 10-3

 

Basic unit ans symbols for the metric system

millimeter   mm                        milligram  mg

centemeter  cm                       gram      g

meter  m                                kilogram   kg

kilometer   km                         metric ton   t

 

milliliter    ml

cubic centimeter  cm3

liter    L

cubic meter  m3

Know metric prefixes

giga G 109 1 000 000 000 billion**
mega M 106 1 000 000 million
kilo k 103 1 000 thousand
centi c 10-2 0.01 hundredth
milli m 10-3 0.001 thousandth
micro μ 10-6 0.000 001 millionth
nano n 10-9 0.000 000 001 billionth**

 

Converting measurements from one unit to the other

Length: 10mm = 1cm

            100cm = 1m

           1000m = 1km

 

Mass: 1000mg = 1g

         1000g = 1kg  

         1000kg = 1t

 

Volume: 1000mL = 1L

             1cm= 1mL

             1000L = 1m3

 

What is Density?
Measurement of the mass of an object per unit volume of the object.

What is volumes measured By displacement?


take the final reading – initial reading.

1mL = 1cm3

What is Energy?


The ability to do work

What is potential energy?


stored energy
What is kinetic energy?
energy of motion
What are the units of energy?
Joule (J) of Calories (cal)
What is temperature
measures only kinetic energy
Convert from oC, oF, K

oF to oC = (F – 32) * 5/9

oF to oC = (F – 32) * 5/9 + 273.15

 


oC to oF = (C * 9/5) + 32

oC to K = C + 273.15

 


K to oF = (K – 273.15) * 9/5 + 32

K to oC = K – 273.15

What is specific heat capacity?
heat of a substance/element
What is Calorie?/ Joule?
energy measurements
Heat equation
q = m x s ΔT   —> T– Tin
What are 3 Physical states?
Solid, liquid, gas
Names of the processes going form one physical state to another.

solid to liquid –> melting

liquid to gas –> evaporation

gas to liquid –> condensation

liquid to solid –> freezing

 

What is a pure substance?
material that cannot be seperated
What is an element?
specific substance that cannot be decomposed
What is a compound
material containing two or more elements or molecules
what is a mixture?
has a variable composition, can be seperated by physical methods.
What is homogeneous mixture?
uniform properties also called solution
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
has properties that varies from region to region
What is a physical property
with out altering composition
what is a physical change
going from solid to liquid or liquid to gas
what is a chemical property?
altering composition
what is a chemical change?
rearangment of atoms
What is conserved during a chemical reaction?
energy and mass
relative charge and mass of an electron 

negative charge

9.1 x 10-31 kg

relative charge and mass of the proton?

positive charge

1.67 x 10-27 kg

 

relative charge and mass of the neutron?

neutral charge 

same mass as proton

how are subatomic particles arrange in an atom?
Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus and electrons outside
What is the atomic notation?

 

 

 [image]

What are isotopes
Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei,…
what is atomic mass
The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom…
what is a group or family
group (also known as a family) is a vertical column in the periodic table of thechemical elements. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table, including the d-blockelements, but excluding the f-block elements.
what is a period or series
elements are arranged in a series of rows (or periods) so that those with similar properties appear in a column
what are representative elements?
The Representative Elements are those elements within the first two families (Groups I and II on the far left) and the last six families or groups (on the right) of the Periodic Table.
what are transition elements
The Transition Metals are the elements in those Groups within the middle of the Table.
Common name for group 1A
Alkali metals
common name for group 2A
alkaline earth metals
common name for group VIIA 
Halogens
common name for group VIIIA
inert gasses or noble gasses
what is an ion
an atom or a molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
what is a cation
a positively charged ion
what is a anion
a negatively charged ion
common ionic charge for group 1A
+1
common ionic charge for group 2A
+2
common ionic charge for Al, Zn, Cd, Ag

Al = +3

Zn = +2

Cd = +2

Ag = +1

common ionic charge for group VIA (16)
-2
common ionic charge for group VIIA (17)
-1
what is a binary ionic compound
a salt consisting of only two elements in which both elements are ions, a cation and an anion
what are ternary ionic compounds
a compound composed of at least three different types of atoms, usually a metal and a polyatomic ion which are iconically bonded.
what is a binary molecular compound
a combination of two non-metallic compounds
What is the bohr model of the atom
[image]
what is ment by quantized energy levels
there are certain discrete energy levels that an atom can attain, by promoting electrons to higher-energy orbitals.
what is a valence electron
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
what is ionization energy and its general trend in the periodic table

ionization energy is the minimal energy required to remove one mole of electrons from gaseous atoms or ions

 

tend to increase while one progresses across a period because the greater number of protons (higher nuclear charge) attract the orbiting electrons more strongly, thereby increasing the energy required to remove one of the electrons

what is the general trend in atomic radius in the periodic table
atomic radii decreases along a row of elements as the additional electron is added to the same shell and the effective nuclear charge also increases ,which attracts the outermost electrons effectively towards the nuclei
what is metallic character and its general trend in the periodic table

a metal is a chemical element is a good conductor of both electricity and heat and forms cations and ionic bonds with non-metals

 

decreases as you move across a period in the periodic table from left to right

what is chemical bonding
an atraction between two molecules that allows the formation of chemical compounds
what is a valence electron
and electron in the outer shell of an atom which combine with other atoms to form molecules
what is an ionic bond
chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion the other atom gains an electron from another ion
why is the radius of a cation always smaller than its parent atom
becuase on the removal of an electron the effective charge on the nucleus increases the pull of the nucleus on the remaining electron increases
why is the radius of an anion always larger than its parent atom
becuase anions are formed do to the gain of electrons
what is a covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms and a molecule
lewis dot structure
what is a polar covalent bond
a bond between two non-metals with different electronegativity
what is a nonpolar covalent bond
A bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electronegativity of less than 0.5
what is electronegativity
the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond.
what is the VSEPR theory
are a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion
how to determine molecular polarity

Step 1: Draw the molecular strulkcture

Step 2: assign the polarity of each of the bonds

step 3: adding the bond dipoles to determine the net molecular dipole

step 4: decide if the bond dipoles cancle. if they do cancle, the molecule is nonpolar

what is avogadros number
equal to 6.023 × 1023
what is a mole
is the amount of pure substance containing the same number of chemical units as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12.
what is amu
atomic mass unit
how to calculate the molar mass of a molecule

When you look up the atomic weight of oxygen, you find it is 16.00 g. Therefore, the molar mass of oxygen is:

2 x 16.00 g = 32.00 g

convert the number of particles to moles and mass
Mass x MM X Moles X (1mole = 6.022×1023 X # of particles
stoichiometry involving mass
Mass of A x MM of A x Moles of A x coefficients of bal equ. x Moles of B x MM of B x mass of B
what is limiting reactant
limits the amount of product that can be formed.
what is thoeretical yeild

the amount obtained in the reaction

 

 

multiply the amount of moles of the limiting reagent by the ratio of the limiting reagent and the synthesized product and by the molecular weight of the product.

what is percent yeild

amount of product obtained in a reaction

 

Percentage Yield =     mass of Actual Yield       x   100%
                                     mass of Theoretical Yield                

what is acutal yeild
amount of chemical that you actually make
what is a solution
a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent.
what is a solute
he minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
what is a solvent
The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
what does “like dissolve like” mean
polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
how can pressure and temperature effect the solubility of gas in a liquid
as the temp increased the solubility of gas decreases and pressure increases the solubility of the gas
what are miscible liquids
two or more liquids that can be mixed and will remain mixed under normal conditions
what are immiscible liquids
when two liquids so not mix with each other
what happens when ionic solid molecules get dissolved in water
 the water molecules pull the ions apart
what are some ways to speed up dissolving solid in liquid

heat up the mixtrure

stire the mixture

add more solute than, filter out the excess

crushn the solute to give it a greater surface area

what does unsaturated mean
contains carbon-carbon double bonds
what is saturated mean

containing max amount of solute

 

has no carbon-carbon bonds

what is supersaturated
increase of concentration beyond saturation point
what is dilute
Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
what is concentrated
A substance made by removing water or other diluting agent; a concentrated form of something, esp. food.
what is mass percent concentration
%(m/m)
what is voume percent concentration
%(v/v)
 what is mass by volume percent concentraion
%(m/v)
what is molariity
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
what is dilution
McVc=MdVd

stoichiometry involving solutions

 

M orV of A x (mol=MV(L) x Moles of A x coefficients of bal eq. x Moles of B x mol=MV(L) x Mor V of B
what are four evidences for a chemical reaction

1. temperature change

2.precipitate is observed if possible

3. formation of bubble or gas

4. color change

general format of a chemical reaction
reactant1 + reactant2 + … → product1 + product2 + …
what are reactants
A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.
what are products
A substance produced during a natural, chemical, or manufacturing process
what are the labels for physical states

(g) gas

(l) liquid

(s) solid

(aq) dissolved in water

what are seven elements that occur naturally as diatomic molecules
Iodine (I), Bromine (Br), Chlorine (Cl), Florine (F), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Hydrogen (H)
what are some driving forces of chemical reactions

heat

enery

entropy

equilibrium shift

combination synthesis

A + B —> AB Metal + nonmental —> ionic compound

 

 

decomposition

AB —> A + B

Metal carbonate —> metal oxide + carbon Dioxide

 

single replacement

A + BC —-> AC + B

 

Metal1 + aq solution1 —> metal2 + aq solution2

double replacement

AB + CD —> AD + CB

aq solution1 + aq solution2 –> aq solution3 + precipitate

what is oxidation
The process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
what is reduction
, is any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)
combustion reaction

O2(g) is a reactant and heat is given off.

 

solubility rule for ionic compound in water

NO3 – All nitrates are soluble.

Cl – All chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2.

SO42- – Most sulfates are soluble. Exceptions include BaSO4, PbSO4, and SrSO4.

CO32- – All carbonates are insoluble except NH4+ and those of the Group 1 elements.

OH – All hydroxides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 elements, Ba(OH)2, and Sr(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble.

S2- – All sulfides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 and Group 2 elements and NH4+.

what is an electrolyte
The ionized or ionizable constituents of a living cell, blood, or other organic matter.
what is a strong electrolyte
a solute that completely, or almost completely, ionizes or dissociates in a solution
what is a weak electrolyte
an electrolyte that does not completely dissociate in solution.
what is a nonelectrolyte

is a substance that will not dissociate into charged ions when dissolved in water.

will not conduct electricity

what is a molecular equation
s the equation where each compound the sum of oxidation numbers is 0.
what is a complete ionic equation
used to describe the chemical reaction while also clearly indicating which of the reactants and/or products exist primarily as ions
what is a net ionic equation
a chemical equation for a reaction which lists only those species participating in the reaction
what is intermolecular force
are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions)
what are van der waals forces
relatively weak electric forces that attract neutral molecules to one another in gases, in liquefied and solidified gases, and in almost all organic liquids and solids
what are dipole-dipole forces
are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
what are hydrogen bonds
the electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine,
what is the london dispersion force
a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles
what are the general properties of a liquid

has definite volume

takes shape of its container

not compressable

not in fixed position

 

what is boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
what is vapor pressure
The pressure of a vapor in contact with its liquid or solid form.
what is surface tension
The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid,…
what is viscosity
The state of being thick, sticky, and semifluid in consistency, due to internal friction.
properties of gas

easy to compress

expand to fill their containers

occupy more space than liquids

 

boyles law

PV =constant

P1V1 = P2V2

Avogadros law

V = constant x T

V1T2 = V2T1

Gay lussacs law

P = constant x T

P1T2 = P2T1

combined gas law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
daltons partial pressure law
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P+ ….
what is kinetic theory of gases
gases consist of small particles in random motion
ideal gas law
PV = nRT
what is an ideal gas
A hypothetical gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interactions, and that consequently obeys the gas laws exactly.
stoichiometry involving gas
V of A (gas) x PV = nRT / stp 22.4 L/mol x moles of A x coeficients of bal eq. x mole of B x PV = nRT/ stp 22.4 L/mol x V of B
general properties of acid

taste sour

turns blue litmus red

destroys chemical property of bases

conducts an electric current

evolve hydrogen gas

 

general properties of a base

bitter taste

does not change color of litmus paper

destroy chemical properties of acids

conduct an electri current

feel slippery

 

what is arrhenius acid
a substance which releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution.
Eg hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates to give H+ ions and Cl ions and so is an acid
what is arrhenius base
is a substance that when added to water increases the number of OH- ions in the water

what is a bronsted lowry base

 

is defined as anything that accepts H1+ ions.
what is bronsted lowry acid
anything that releases H1+ ions
what is conjugate acid-base pair
refers to acids and bases with common features
what is ionization constant of water
 Kw = 1 x 10-14
what is pH
measures how acidic or basic a substance is and ranges from 0 to 14.
what is POH
is a measure of hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration.
neutralization reaction
Acid + Base —-> salt + water
what is titration of acid and base
the determination of the concentration of an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid or base with an acid or base of known concentration
what is indicator
are ways to measure
what is a buffer
is a molecule that tends to either bind or release hydrogen ions in order to maintain a particular pH
what is an organic compound
low melting point, not soluble in H2O, slow reactions
what is a hydrocarbon
contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms
prefixes associated with the number of carbon atoms in an organic compund
1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct, 9-non, 10-dec
what is a molecular formula
name of compounds or atoms
what is a fully expanded formula
[image]
what is a condensed formula
[image]
what is a bond line formula

The skeletal formula of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its molecular structure

 

[image]

structures and names of different funtional groups
[image]
what are primary(1o), secondary (2o), Tertiary (3o) alcohols
[image]
what are primary, secondary, tertirary amines
[image]
what is an alkane
a single bond, tetrahedral 109.5o bond angle
how to name alkanes
ass suffix “ane” substiituents end with “yl”
physical properties of alkanes

molecular polarity: larger the alkane the more polar it is

boiling and melting points:

[image]

what is an alkene
contain one or more carbon double bonds
how to name an alkene

add “ene” at the end of name, arrange alpha order, souble bond to two diffenerent groups use cis-trans

 

 

Cis = same

trans = opposite

what is an alkyne

one or more triple bonds

180o

how to name alkyne
ass “yne” to end of name
what is a cyclohycarbon
a saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms bonded to form a ring
how to name a cycloalkane

CnH2n single bonds

same sum letter that comes first in the alphabet goes first

how to name a cycloalkene

CnH2n

same sum letter that come first in alphabet goes first

what is an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene)
used to classify benzene and its derivatives

how to name an aromatic hydrocarbon

 

[image]
what is a chiral or achiral center
achiral does not have 4 different substituents
what is a stereocenter
chiral carbon that contains 4 different substituents
what are isomers
a compound displaying isomerism with one or more other compounds

what are consitutional isomers

 

molecules having the same molecular formula but different arangments of atoms
what are stereoisomers
isomers that have the same connectivity but different orientations of their atoms in space
determine the maximum possible number of stereoisomers
calculate 2n, n =  # of stereocenters
how many stereoisomers are usually active in biological system
onle one found in nature
what ate configurational isomers
a subcategory of stereoisomers that posses the same molecular formula, same connectivity but differ spatially due to internal bond rotation
what are enantiomers
Each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
what is the one property that enantimers differ in
they’re interacting with other chiral substances.
what is a racemic mixture
is one that has equal amounts of left and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule….
what are diastereomers
stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another and are non-superimposable on one another.
what are conformational isomers
is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted exclusively by rotations…
what are axial or equatorial groups
is axial (straight up or straight down) and the other group is equatorial (at an angle, up or down).
what is the 1,3-diaxial interaction
n interaction (usually repulsive) between two axial substituents on a cyclohexane ring.