Final exam

why is water an excellent solvent?
because of its polar nature
metals can be pulled into a wire so they are?
what intermolecular forces are in gases?
what substances are composed entirely of carbon
diamond and graphite
describe formation of dispersion forces
describe metallic bond
what effect does an increase in temperature have on viscosity?
why does ice float?
why should experiments measuring heat exchange be in a calorimeter
what happens to the temperature as liquid evaporates?
it decreases
which states of matter are the only ones that can flow?
gases and liquids
there is an iron cube and an aluminum cube that are the same temperature, how are their average kinetic energies different?
there is no difference
what happens when energy is added to a boiling liquid?
the temperature does not change
what happens when the vapor pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure?
the liquid BEGINS to boil
what is the solubility of a gas in a liquid directly proportional to?
the pressure of gas above liquid
what doesn’t ethanol dissolve in?
why does H2O have a greater boiling point than methane?
because strong hydrogen bonds are found between water molecules
which of these are soluble and insoluble in water?


all of them are soluble except for CF4
how many grams of NaOH should be added to H2O to prepare 0.75L of solution w/molarity of 0.020?
.75L x (0.02/1L) x (40g/1 mol) = .6g
what is osmotic pressure?
the downward push on the previously diluted solution that prevents any more solvent from passing through
how will and what happens as the volume of the concentrated solution increases?
happens because more solvent is added and it results in an increase in pressure
what does boiling point elevation do?
it changes the boiling point
what happens to the reaction as you decrease the volume?
the forward reaction is favored so it shifts toward the product
what is boiling point proportional to?
what is the solution outside of a cell when it is hypotonic?
less concentrated than the inside of the cell
what is the equilibrium constant a measure of?
the extent to which a reaction proceeds to completion
why does a solute depress the freezing point?
because the solute disrupts the crystal formation of the solvent
which subatomic particle controls properties?
the electrons
what is the solubility product and what info does it give about an aqueous solution of an ionic solid?
the sp is represented in equations by Ksp. It tells how soluble an ionic solid is in a certain aqueous solution. Increase in Ksp means highly soluble and a decrease in Ksp means not very soluble
what is the relationship between Le Chatelier’s principle and the common ion?
LC says when you put stress through temperature, concentration or pressure, the system works to relive the stress. When a common ion is added it increases the concentration of that ion and the system will shift to the left.
a volatile liquid is?
one that evaporates easily
why does the equilibrium vapor pressure increase with an increase in temperature
because there are more particles with higher kinetic energy that want to escape and therefore collide with the container they are in
a substance with a low heat of vaporization has what kind of intermolecular forces?
weak intermolecular forces
why do gas particles have the most potential energy?
because of the large spaces between the particles
what measures the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
when does deposition occur?
when a gas is converted directly into a solid
when a solid is converted into a liquid is it endo or exothermic process?
when do all 3 states of matter exist in equilibrium
at the triple point
when does dynamic equilibrium exist?
when the rate of vaporization equals the rate of condensation
under what conditions wil a liquid boil
when the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure
electrolyte is…?
a substance that dissolves in water to form a solution that conducts an electric current
molality is not affected by what?
changes in temperature
a solution containing the maximum amount of solute to a given amount of solvent is
super saturated
what solution has water as the solvent?
miscible includes
liquids that can mix each other
what does Raults law state?
that the magnitude of vapor pressure reduction is proportional to the solutions concentration
volatile is ?
a substance that will become a gas under existing conditions
what effect does adding solute to solvent have on the freezing point?
it lowers it
what effect does the addition of a solute have on the vapor pressure?
when you add solute you have solute mixed with solvent and fewer solvent particles at surface because the solute particles cause an interference, so fewer can escape.
what are the five kinds of chemical reactions?
synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion
two or more substances combining to make a more complex substance

A + B = AB

single replacement?
a neutral element becomes an ion as it replaces another ion in the compound

n the case of a positive ion being replaced: A + BC —-> B + AC
In the case of a negative ion being replaced: A + BC —-> C + BA

one substance is broken down into two or more, simpler substances. This type of reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction

AB—> A+B

double relacenment
two elements in two compounds change places
so that
AB + CD —> AD + CB
hydrocarbon + oxygen —> carbon dioxide + water
charges of the monoatomic ions?
group and charge
1 is +1
2 is +2
13 is +3
15 is -3
16 is -2
17 is -1
18 is 0
metric conversions?