Final Exam

2 Types of Matter
Pure & Mixtures
2 Types of Pure Substances
Elements & Compounds
2 Types of Mixtures
Homogenous & Heterogenous
Physical Properties
Anything observed without changing the substance or forming new substance
Chemical Properties
Observed through forming new substances
A glass of milk souring is a _____ change?
Chemical change
A ice cube melting is a _____ change?
physical
Kilo-
10^3
Centi-
10^-2
Nano-
10^-9
Deci-
10^-1
Milli-
10^-3
Founder of Modern Atomic Theory. formed the atomic theory, which states that all matter is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms that are all alike and have the same atomic weight.
John Dalton
JJ Thompson
discovered the electron and developed the plum-pudding model of the atom.
used the results of his gold-foil experiment to state that all the mass of an atom were in a small positively-charged ball at the center of the atom.
Ernest Rutherford
Father of modern chemistry. Law of Conservation of matter.
Antoine Levoisier
Aristotle’s Atomic Theory
Everything made of 4 elements: fire, water, earth and air
Bond Involving electron sharing
Covalent
Bond involving electron transfer
Ionic Bond
Molar Mass
Add g/mol
Atomic weight
amu
% Composition
Part/Whole * 100= ___%
Empirical formula
Simplest whole # ratio
Steps of Stoichiometry
1. Bal Eqn
2. Convert moles (divide g by mm)
3. Compare moles given to moles unknown( unknown/given)
4. Convert to whatever
(g)->moles
Divide by mm
moles->particles
Multiply by Avogadro’s #
Precipitate Reaction
Often involve Ionic Compounds
X (aq)+ y(aq) -> Z(s)+A(aq)

Z is precipitate
Anions Pair with Cations
Unsoluble is precipitate (see rules)

Acid Base Rxn
Forms salt and water
LEO THE LION SAYS GER
Loss electrons oxidation
Gain electrons reduced
Redox Rxns
Electron transfer…follow oxidation rules given (not in a compound # is 0)
Pressure
=F/A
Boyles Law
As P increases V decreases (INVERSE)
Charles Law
as temp increases V increases
Gay-Lusaac’s Law
As Temp increases P increases
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
P= Pressure, V=volume, T=Temp (Kelvins only), n=moles, R=0.0821 liter·atm/mol·K
1st Law of Thermodynamics
?E=work+heat loss
Enthalpy
Heat(Q) at constant P
Calorimetry
q=m.s?T
q=heat, m=mass, s=specefic heat, ?T
Wavelength Eqn
c = ? ? f
c=speed of light,?=wavelength, f=frequency
Max Plank
Said energy is Quantized
Einstein
e=mc^2 and photoelectric effect
Neils Bohr
Electrons orbit the nucleus
Molarity
moles of solute/L of solution
or m=n/V (in L)
Dilution
Decreases concentration not moles
Acid
Proton Donator
Base
Proton Acceptor
Salts
Ionic compound of cation (NOT H) and anion (NOT OH- or O2-)
Net Ionic Equation
Then, you break apart the soluble molecules into the two ions that are formed (one positive and one negative). You will have to use the solubility rules to do this, they can be found online. If something is insoluble, it should not be broken apart. Write the reaction out with all of the separated ions. This is called the Total Ionic Equation. Then, you simplify by canceling things out if they appear on both sides of the reaction, resulting in the Net Ionic Equation.
Ionic Compounds do/do not exist as gases
Do not
Normal Atmospheric Conditions
25 degrees C & 1 atm pressure
Force
Mass x Acceleration
Pressure
Force/ Area
Manometer
Used to measure pressure of gases other than atmospheres
Plasma V Gas
Charged / Not charged
vol is not def / vol not definate
compress / compress
Move in straight lines like pong
Molar Mass
mass/mole M=m/n or rewritten as n=m/M
PV=mRT/M
Density=
M/V
m/v=PM/RT
D=PM/RT
1 Mol of Gas at Rm Temp
22.4L
Ideal Gas V Real
M but not v / m & v
dont attract or repulse / at high temps do not exhibit ideal behavior
same as above/hi Pressure real gases attract
Heat
transfer of energy btw bodies
Temperature
Measure of av KE
1st law
change in E equals work plus heat loss
DeBroglie
Waves can act like particles and particles like waves (Wave particle duality)
Heisenberg
Uncertainty of the position of a particle in time-photon can bump into it
Schrodinger
showed how particles transition from different waves, assigned quantum #s
Quantum #s
1st tells main level, 2nd sub, 3rd Orbital, 4th Spin
Mendelev
varied rows with similar prop. in different lengths, leaving blanks for undiscovered elements.
Newlands
Created a 7×7 periodic table based on atomic mass not atomic #
Alkaline elements
1st column except H
Alkaline Earth
Second column
Halogens
Second to last column 7a
Noble Gas
Last column
Atomic #
increases L to Right top to bottom
Atomic radius
Increases right to left top to bottom
Ionization energy
increases bottom to top and left to right
Electronegativity
Increases bottom to top and left to right
Lattice energy
Increases with charge (small distance is akin to higher lattive energy also)
Single Covalent Bond
Longest weakest
Triple covalent bond
shortest and strongest
ABE
A: Central B: Bond E: Lone pair
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Having too few valence electrons to ever obtain an octet.

Hydrogen, Beryllium and Boron have two few valence electrons to ever obtain a full octet. See this.
Hydrogen can have at most 2 valence electrons after it shares its electron with another atom.
Beryllium will have 4 valence electrons after it has finished bonding.
Boron will have 6 valence electrons after it shares its valence electrons with other atoms.

2. Expanding the octet to have 10, 12 or 14 valence electrons instead of 8.

elements in periods 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 can expand their octet to have 10, 12, or 14 valence electrons.

Nuclear Reactors
Fission
Hydrocarbons
Hydrogen and carbon (exceptions: CO2, CO, CN-1, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, CO3-2, HCO3-)
Alliphatic Hydrocarbons
Alkanes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, alkenes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Moth balls (napthalene). Atleast 1 benzene ring C6H6
Alkanes
single bond between C. CnH2n+2
Alkynes
1 triple bond btw carbon atoms. CnH2n-2
Cycloalkanes
single bond between C atoms. CnH2n. ex butane in a ring is cyclobutane.
Alkenes
at least one dbl bond btw c. CnH2n
Naming Alkanes
Location-#of C+yl-Parent Name
x

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