Final Exam

Femto (f)
10-15
Pico (p)
10-12
Nano (n)
10-9
Micro (µ)
10-6
Mega (M)
106
Giga (G)
109
Convert Celcius to Fahrenheit
9/5(°C)+32
Convert Fahrenheit to Celcius
5/9(°F-32)
Difference between -ous and -ic in a cation

-ous = lower charge

-ic = higher charge

Nonmetal cations have what nomenclature ending?
-ium
Monatomic anions (and some simple polyatomic anions) have what nomenclature ending?
-ide
Polyatomic anions containing oxygen (oxyanions) can have which nomenclature endings?
-ate most commonly, and -ite when there is one fewer oxygen atom but the same charge
Which prefixes can oxyanions have?

per- when there is one more oxygen atom than the oxyanion ending in -ate

hypo- when there is one fewer oxygen atom than the oxyanion ending in -ite

Anions derived by adding H+ to an oxyanion are named by adding which prefix(es)?
hydrogen or dihydrogen as appropriate
Acids containing anions whose names end in -ide are named by
changing the -ide ending to -ic, adding the prefix hydro-, then following with the word “acid”
Acids containing anions whose names end in -ate or -ite are named by
changing -ate to -ic or -ite to -ous, the adding the word “acid”
Avogadro’s number
6.02*1023
Any metal on the activity series list can by oxidized by
the ions of elements -below- it
Titration is
combining a sample of a solution with a standard solution that it will react with. For instance, taking an unknown concentration of HCl, reacting it with a known concentration of NaOH, and seeing how much salt/water is made.
Equivalence point
the point in titration at which stoichiometrically equivalent quantities of reactants are brought together
Kinetic energy =
1/2mv2 where v = speed
Potential energy =
mgh, where g = gravitational constant (9.8m/s2)
Electrostatic potential energy (between charged particles) =
kQ1Q2/d, where k = constant of proportionality (8.99*109) and Q1 and Q2 are the charges of the atoms
work =

force * distance

also, -P * change in volume

enthalpy (H) =
E + PV
change in enthalpy =

change in energy + P * change in V

or

change in (E+PV)

or

the heat gained or lost at constant pressure

heat capacity
amount of energy required to raise temp by 1 K
specific heat

heat capacity of one gram of a substance

or

quantity of heat transferred/grams*change in temp

heat of solution =
specific heat*grams*change in temp = negative heat of reaction
heat of reaction =
negative heat capacity * change in temp
Planck’s constant

6.626*10-34

energy of photon=E=hv where h = Planck’s constant

Matter can only emit energy in multiples of h

Rydberg equation

1/wavelength = (Rydberg constant)*(1/n12 – 1/n22)

where Rydberg’s constant = 1.097*107 and n1 and n2 are the principle quantum numbers, with n2 being larger than n1

relationship of wavelength to momentum
wavelength = h/mv where h = Planck’s constant and v = frequency
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

uncertainty of position * uncertainty (change in) mv is greater than or equal to h/4π

Therefore, to find the uncertainty of position, do h/(4πm * change in v)

order for filling orbitals
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p
effective nuclear charge =
number of protons – number of core electrons
lattice energy
energy required to separate an ionic compound into its ions
dipole moment

quantitative measurement of the magnitude of a dipole

Qr, where Q = charge and r = distance

formal charge
find the number of electrons on the Lewis structure of that atom that are either bonded or nonbonded, then subtract the number of electrons the atom usually has by the Lewis structure electrons
enthalpy of a reaction
energy of breaking bonds – energy of bonds made
trigonal planar electron domain geometry

3 electron domains

120 degrees

tetrahedral electron domain geometry

4 electron domains

109.5 degrees

trigonal bipyramidal electron domain geometry

5 electron domains

120 degrees and 90 degrees

octahedral electron domain geometry

6 electron domains

90 degrees

bent molecular geometry
trigonal planar or trigonal pyramidal – 1
trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry
tetrahedral – 1
seesaw molecular geometry
trigonal bipyramidal – 1
T-shaped molecular geometry
seesaw – 1
square pyramidal molecular geometry
octahedral – 1
square planar molecular geometry
square pyramidal – 1
hybrid orbitals

count number of lobes on geometry

two = sp

three = sp2

four = sp3

five = sp3d

bond order
1/2(# bonding electrons – # antibonding electrons)
pressure =
force/area
convert between units of pressure
1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.01325 * 105 Pa
Boyle’s law
PV=constant
Charles’ law
V/T=constant
Avogadro’s law
V/n=constant
density of gas

P * molar mass (g/mol)

—–

RT

average kinetic energy of gas molecules

1/2 * m * u2

where u is the root-mean-square speed, the speed of a molecule possessing average kinetic energy

relationship of root-mean-square speed to molar mass and temp
u = square root of (3RT/molar mass)
Graham’s law of effusion

r1r2=square root of (molar mass1/molar mass2) = u1/u2

where r = rate of effusion

van der Waals equation
(P + n2a/V2)(V – nb) = nRT
combined gas law
P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
dispersion forces tend to increase in strength with
larger molecules
Hydrogen bonding is between
the hydrogen atom in a polar bond (particularly H-F, H-O, or H-N) and nonbonding electron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom (usually an F, O, or N in another molecule)
molecular solid

made of atoms or molecules

London dispersion, dipole-dipole, and hydrogen

fairly soft, low to moderately high melting point, poor thermal and electrical conduction

covalent-network solids

made of atoms

covalent bonds

very hard, very high melting point, variable thermal and electrical conduction

ionic solids

made of positive and negative ions

electrostatic attractions

hard and brittle, high melting point, poor thermal and electrical conduction

metallic solids

made of atoms

metallic bonds

soft to very hard, low to very high melting point, excellent thermal and electrical conduction, malleable and ductile

Henry’s law
solubility of gas in liquid = Henry’s law constant * partial pressure of gas over solution
parts per million or billion
mass of component in solution/total mass of solution * 106 or *109
molality
moles of solute/kilograms of solvent
colligative properties
depend on collective effect of number of solute particles
Raoult’s law
partial pressure of solvent vapor above solution = mole fraction of solvent in solution * vapor pressure of pure solvent
increase in boiling point by solute or decrease in freezing point by solute =
molality * molal boiling-point-elevation constant or molal freezing-point-depression constant
osmotic pressure =
(n/V)RT