Final Exam

JJ Thompson’s cathode ray tube determined
electrons existed in atoms
the gold foil experiment determined
that protons existed in atoms
An experiment performed by Robert —– in 1909 determined the size of the charge on an electron
A-mass number
Z-atomic number
X-element symbol
Periodic table mass is the
weighted —-
of all of
the isotopes of each element
according to the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light ranges from _____ (left end) to ____ (right end). What are the respective wavelengths of these two extremas?
violet 400 nm
red 700 nm
produced by oscillating motion of electric charge
light/ radiant energy
According to the Photoelectric effect and theory, quantity of e–
depends on
—- of light
intensity (brightness)
According to the Photoelectric effect and theory, photons are only ejected if
light shined at or above minimum frequency on metal surface
T/F: the atomic line spectrum is continuous
as electrons absorb energy, they move to a ______, also known as the excited state
higher orbital
as electrons fall back to a lower orbital, ____ is released as _____
light is released as energy
when nf > ni
E > 0
when ni > nf
E < 0
For sig figs and problems that involve multiple calculations with only division or multiplication…
round at the very end
For sig figs and problems that involve multiple calculations with addition/subtraction AND multiplication/division…
sig figs are defined at EACH step
1 A is equivalent to
1 x 10^-10 meters
the principle quantum number (n) is proportional to
the average distance
of the e-
from the nucleus
Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l) describes
the shape of the orbital
what letters corresponds to each of the principle quantum numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3
s, p, d, f
Magnetic Quantum Number (ml)
describes orientation of the orbital
• All orbitals in a subshell have — energy
Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms)
orientation of electron
Pauli Exclusion Principle states that
Each orbital can only have 2 e-

e- in same orbital have opposite spin

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 electron configuration of phosphorus, which are the core electrons vs valence electrons
core: 1s2 2s2 2p6
valence: 3s2 3p3
special cases in which the electron configuration of certain elements (in the d-orbital range) do not follow the trend arises from what fact regarding d-orbitals?
? filled or completely filled d orbital is more stable
aufbau principle
electrons fill from lowest to highest energy
Hund’s Rule
most stable orbital is where you try to get all orbitals to have same e- spin
to find the debroglie wavelength…
divide planck’s constant by the product of mass and velocity
the element P has the ions P- and P+, place them in order of smallest ionic radius to largest
P+, P, P-
Amount of energy required to completely convert
one mole of a solid ionic compound to the
constituent ions in the gas phase
lattice energy
____ bonding Gives each atom a noble gas configuration
what is the difference between pure covalent and polar covalent? ionic?
pure- electrons are equally shared
polar- unequally shared
ionic- opposite charges
ability of an atom in a
compound to attract electrons to itself
List the type of bonding that occurs in the respective electronegativity differences


nonpolar covalent
polar covalent
when drawing lewis structures, we have to consider that ____(element) only forms two bonds and _____(element) can only form 3
three rules of naming covalent compounds
1 add prefixes for both element
2 drop mono for first element
3 add -ide suffice to second element
three rules of naming ionic compounds whose cation has 1 charge
1 write metal
2 add -ide if monoatomic anion
3 write name for polyatomic anion
four rules of naming ionic compounds whose cation has multiple charges
1 write metal
2 specify charge with roman numerals
3 add -ide if monoatomic anion
4 write name for polyatomic anion
go over common polyatomic ion names
formula for ethanol
naming acids
anion ends in -ate, add -ic
anion ends in -ite, add -ous
what molecules have a SPECIFIC number of
waters in their structure?
what indicates the number of water molecules in the compound
what type of acid has only one hydrogen
binary acids
e.g. hydrochloric acid HCL
Contain carbon and
organic compounds
Covalently bonded to form a single ion
polyatomic ions
Metals lose electrons from the ____ shell
how to determine the polarity of a molecule? Check what two things?
lone pairs and polar bonds. what are polar bonds?
In VB theory, a single bond is represented by
1 sigma bond
In VB theory, a double bond is represented by
1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond
In VB theory, a triple bond is represented by
1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds
Carbon always
has a complete
octet (put in

In organic molecules, what element symbol is usually not written?
carbon/ Carbon-Hydrogen bond
Hydrogen phosphate is?
HPO4 ^ -2
Draw sulfite ion, what should you take into consideration? How many resonance structures does it have?
To find ideal bond angles, look at electron domain geometry chart or molecular geometry chart?
based on electron domain geometry
24. What is the name of the compound formed when HI is dissolved in water?
hydroiodic acid
27. Resonance structures differ by:
. placement of electrons only

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