Final Exam Chem 1211

Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2
Hydrogen Chloride
HCl
Sulfuric Acid
HNO3
Acetic Acid
CH3COOH
Ammonia
NH3
Sulfur Dioxide
SO2
Sulfur Trioxide
SO3
Carbon Monoxide
CO
Carbon Dioxide
CO2
Methane
CH4
Ethane
C2H6
Propane
C3H8
Butane
C4H10
Pentane
C5H12
Benzene
C6H6
Methanol
CH3OH
Ethanol
CH3CH2OH
Acetone
CH3COCH3
Ether
CH3CH2OCH2CH3
Avagadro’s number
6.022E23
*C–>*F
*F=(1.8x*C)+32
heat energy
q=
q=m x c x ^T
(^T=change in temp)
mole/volume relation
M1V1=M2V2
Davy
passed electricity through compounds
Faraday
amount of reaction during electrolysis is proportional the the electrical current
Thompson
Determined e/m ratio, “discoverer of electrons”
Cathode ray with positive and negative plates on either side
Millikan
Determined charge and mass of electron
Container with hole, electrons drop through
Goldstein
observed canal rays
Geiger and Marsden
Shot gamma rays at piece of foil, most went straight through, some bounced back
Rutherford
analyzed Geiger and Marsden’s experiment, found that atoms have very small, dense (+) centers
Chadwick
discovered neutrons
metallic characteristics
|<---
Ampere
1A=1E-10m
velocity/c/wavelength(~)
V=c/~
Energy/h/c/~
E=(hc)/~
Planck’s constant
h=6.626E-34 J*s
how to find wavelength moving from one energy level to another
(1/~)=R[{1/(n1)2}-{1/(n2)2}]
Rydberg’s constant
R=1.097E7 m-1
speed of light through a vacuum
c=3.00E8 m/s
s orbital
l=0
m(l)=0
p orbital
l=1
m(l)=-1,0,+1
d orbital
l=2
m(l)=-2,-1,0,+1,+2
f orbital
l=3
m(l)=-3,-2,-1,0,+1,+2,+3
electron capacity of subshell
4(l)+2
electron capacity of a shell
2n^2
atomic radii
|<---
first ionization energy
^—>
except 3A<2A and 6A<5A
electron negativity
—>-
^
Electronegativity-ionic/(non)polar covalent
^EN>1.7 ionic
0.4<^EN<1.7 polar covalent
^EN<0.4 nonpolar covalent
acidic
—>
^
Strong acids
HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 HClO4
Weak acids
HF
CH3COOH
HCN
HNO2
H2CO3
H2SO3
H3PO4
(COOH)2
Strong bases
1A oxides 2A oxides
LiOH Ca(OH)2
NaOH Sr(OH)2
KOH Ba(OH)2
RbOH
CsOH
2 ternary acids with same central nonmetal
hypo-stem-ous=2 lower ox
-ous=1 lower ox
-ic=1 higher ox
per-stem-ic=2 higher ox
covalent bond
2 nonmetals
ionic bond
metal+nonmetal
Ternary acids
H+nonmetal+O
acid+base
–>salt +H2O
never redox
Formal Charge
group# – (#of bonds + #unshared e-)
the lewis dot structure with all closest to 0 is best
linear e. geo
AB2
nonpolar
trig. planar e. geo
AB3
nonpolar
tetrahedral e. geo
nonpolar
AB4
nonpolar
tetrahedral e. geo
polar
AB3U, AB3U2, UBU3
polar
trigonal bipyramidal e. geo
AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, AB2U3
nonpolar
no octet rule
octahedral e. geo
AB6, AB5U, AB4U2
nonpolar
every double bond has…
1o, 1pi
every triple bond has…
1o, 2pi
every single bond has…
1o, 0pi
*C –> K
K= *C+273
combined gas law
[(P1V1)/T1]=[(P2V2)/T2]
STP
0*C
1 atm
22.4 L
pressure, temperature, volume equation
PV=nRT
universal gas constant
R=0.0821 (Latm/molK)
total pressure
Ptot=P1+P2+P3…
atm to torr
1atm=760 torr
diffusion
mixing one substance with another
effuse
gas in container with porous walls
van der Waals equation
[P+{(n^2)a/v^2}*{V-nb)=nrt
exothermic
releases energy
endothermic
absorbs energy
Thermochemical standards
298.15 K
1 atm
electron affinity equation
x(g)+e(-) –> X(-)(g)
strong acid-strong base reactions equation
H+(aq)+OH-(aq) –> H2O(l)