final exam for coach nix

what states that energy cannot be created or destroyed?
law of conservation of energy

energy flowing from a warmer to a cooler object is called

heat
the amount of energy needed to raise temperature a certain amount
specific heat
what is the SI unit for heat and energy?
joules
what measures the amount of heat released or absorbed during a chemical process?
thermometer
what affect does increasing the temperature have on the reaction rate?
it makes the reaction go faster
how do catalysts affect reaction rates
they speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
what is true of products and reactants at equilibrium?
their concentrations are the same
how are hydroniums ions formed?
when H2O receives an H+
a strong acid titrated with a strong bade will produce a solution with what pH?
7
How do you determine pH if the pOH is 12?
subtract 12 from 14
what is the end point in a titration?
where the indicator changes color
what is the equivalence point in a titration
where the acids and the bases are neutral
a solution with more [OH-] than [H+] is called
basic
a solution with more [H+] than [OH-] is called
acidic
a solution with equal amounts of [OH-] and [H+] is called
neutral
what is the equation for the self ionization of water?
2H2O= H3O + OH
what is the value of Kw?
1.00 x 1014
what are the products of a neutralization reaction?
salt and water
what is the formula for pH?
pH= -log(H+)
an alkane only contains what type of atoms? Bonds?
Carbon and Hydrogen; single bonds
all organic compounds contain what element?
carbon
nonpolar solutes dissolve best in what types of solutes?
nonpolar

what type of solution conatins less dissolved solute that a saturated solution at the same temperature?

unsaturated
what functional group signifies alcohol?
OH or hydroxyl group
how many ions will form when MgCl2 ionizes?
3
how do bases taste?
bitter
what is the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base?
that have an opposite or reverse relationship
what is the arrehnius definition of an acid and a base?
an acid is an H+ donor and a base is an H+ acceptor
what is the bronsted lowry definition of an acid and a base?
acid has H+ base has OH
define heat
energy flowing from hot to cold
what is the SI unit for heat and energy
joule
what makes up the universe?
system and surroundings
what is entropy?
measure of disorder
what states that a spontaneous process always proceeds in a way that the entropy of the universe increases
law of disorder
the heat required to raise one gram of substance is called
specific heat
device used to meature the heat absorbed or released in a reaction
calorimeter
a reaction that can occur in both the forward and reverse directions is called
a reversible reaction
what direction would increasing the concentration of products affect the equilibrium position
it would move it back to the left

what will slow down the rate of the reaction

an inhibitor
what will speed up the rate of the reaction?
a catalyst

the amount of energy needed to form the activated complex is called

activation energy
the amount of heat needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celcius is

calorie

if the heat content of the reaction system increases then it is a
endothermic reaction
if the heat content of the system decreases then it is called
an exothermic reaction
what principle determines the way equilibrium will shift if stress is placed on the system
Le Chatlier’s principle
what are the products of a neutralization reaction

salt and water

pH +;pOH=

14

two liquids that are capable of being mixed are said to be
miscible
the coefficients of balanced chemical equation represent the
mole ratios
before you can solve and stoichiometric probelm, the equation must first be
balanced

the substance in the chemical reaction that keeps the reaction from continuing to go forward is the

limiting reactant
the predicted amoun of product that will form is called the _______. The amount that is actually prodeced is called the ________.
Theoretical yeild and actual yeild.
the SI based unit used to measure the amount of a substance
mole
the ratio of actual to theoretical yeild is a chemical reaction is called ________.
% yeild
write;a balanced equation for the following reation: sodium chloride and magnesium bromide react to form 2 products
2NaCl + MgBr = 2NaBr + MgCl2
to complete the stoichiometric problem you have to convert the known grams of a substance to what?
moles
how many grams of potassium chloride are produces if 25g of potassium chlorate decompose?

2KClO3 -; 2KCl + 3O2

what state of matter has the highest compressibility?
gas
which state of matter has the lowest kinetic energy?
solid
the average amount of kinetic energy conatined in a substance is called?
temperature
what type of forces determines what state of matter a substance will;be?

intermolecular forces

these are the three types of _________ forces: ionic, covalent, metallic.
intramolecular
a collision between gas particles where no kinetic energy is lost is said to be
elastic
standard atmosperic pressure is ______mmHg to ____ atm.
760; 1
what is avogadro’s number?
6.02 x 1023
the _______ _______ theory describes the behavior of gases in terms of particles in motion.
kinetic molecular
the sum of pressures of each gas = total pressure of the micture of gasses

1:2

a measure of resistance of a liquid to flow is called
viscosity
what property of water allows a needle to float on its surface
high surface tension
solids with irregular, non repeating particles are called
amorphous solids
phase change when solid goes straight to gas without becoming a liwuid first
sublimation

if a substance can dissolve into a solvent, it is said to be

soluble

shaking and stirring, called _______ does what to solubility?
agitation; increases
what is the most common liquid solvent?
water
what is molarity? how is it expressed?
concentration; mol/liter
what is molality?
moles of solute ÷ kg of solvent
when you add a solute to a solvent the temperature at which a solvent boils _________. this is called the boiling point ___________.
increases; elevation
what property is being expressed when you add rock salt to ice to make ice cream?
the colligative property of freezing poing depression
the ability of a solution to conduct electricity is called
electrolyte
a _____ solution contains a small amount of solute relative to the solute’s solubility

dilute

when a solution crystalizes it is said to be ______.
supersaturated
volume of gas at STP is
22.4 L
hydrocarbons contain what elements?
hydrogen and carbon
all organic molecules contain what element?
carbon
name the following: CH3CH2CH2CH3
butane
what is the formula for an alcohol functional group?
-OH

name the following: CH3CH;CHCH3

(doulbe bond instead of three)

butene (doulbe bond instead of three)
general formula for an alkane?
Cn H2n+2
what is the formula for an amine group? what the key element to look for?
-N; Nitrogen