# Final Exam Review

 how do the particles in a gas compare with the particles in a liquid and solid?
 they are farther apart and have higher energy
 equilibrium
 physical and chemical changes that occur at equal rates
 how does atmospheric pressure compare with the particles in a liquid and solid?
 increase pressure, increase BP; decrease pressue, decrease BP
 what would happen if water was nonpolar?
 it would be a gas at room temp.
 conditions that define an ideal gas(temp. & pressure)
 high temp, low pressure
 charles law
 volume and temp, DIRECTLY proportional
 boyle’s law
 volume and pressure, INVERSELY proportional
 gay-lussac’s law
 pressure and temp, INVERSELY proportional
 combined gas law
 P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
 ideal gas law
 PV=nRT
 dalton’s law
 P(total)=P1+P2+P3+P4…
 conversion factor between atm and mmHg
 1 atm=760 mmHg
 formula for density
 D=m/v
 At STP, what is the conversion from moles to liters for a gas?
 1 mol= 22.4 L (gas)
 what must a solution contain to be able to conduct electricity?
 ions
 3 factors that increase the rate of dissolution
 temperature, agitation, particle size
 what is molarity?
 M=mol/L
 what is a precipitate?
 a solid
 soluble
 dissolves in water
 insoluble
 does not dissolve in water
 what is an acid?
 proton donor
 what is a base?
 proton acceptor
 what color is litmus paper with an acid?
 red
 what color is litmus paper with a base?
 blue
 6 strong acids
 H2SO4HClO4HBrHIHClHNO3
 conjugate acid
 what the base forms after it gains a proton
 conjugate base
 what the acid forms after it loses a proton
 acid-conjugate base pairHCl + H2O > H3O+ +Cl-
 HCl, Cl-
 base-conjugate acid pairHCl + H2O > H3O+ +Cl-
 H2O, H3O+
 acid-conjugate base pairNH3 + H2O > NH4+ + OH-
 H2O, OH-
 base-conjugate acid pairNH3 + H2O > NH4+ + OH-
 NH3, NH4+
 neutralization
 a reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules and a salt
 hydronium ions
 [H3O+]
 hydroxide ions
 [OH-]
 hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations for BASIC solution
 [H3O+] < 1x10 ^-7 M
 hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations for ACIDIC solution
 [H3O+] > 1×10 ^-7 M
 pH range of a BASE
 7.01-14
 pH range of an ACID
 1-6.99
 q=m x Cp x delta T
 q=m x Cp x delta T
 Hess’s Law
 the sum of delta H’s for given reactions
 delta G=delta H-T delta S
 delta G=delta H-T delta S
 entropy
 disorder, gases are most disordered
 when is entropy positive?
 gas is formed in the products
 when is entropy negative?
 solid is formed in the products
 when is a reaction spontaneous?
 delta G is negative
 when is a reaction nonspontaneous?
 delta G is positive
 activation energy
 minimum energy required for an effective collision
 catalyst
 lowers the activation energy
x

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