Final Exam Review

how do the particles in a gas compare with the particles in a liquid and solid?
they are farther apart and have higher energy
equilibrium
physical and chemical changes that occur at equal rates
how does atmospheric pressure compare with the particles in a liquid and solid?
increase pressure, increase BP; decrease pressue, decrease BP
what would happen if water was nonpolar?
it would be a gas at room temp.
conditions that define an ideal gas
(temp. & pressure)
high temp, low pressure
charles law
volume and temp, DIRECTLY proportional
boyle’s law
volume and pressure, INVERSELY proportional
gay-lussac’s law
pressure and temp, INVERSELY proportional
combined gas law
P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2
ideal gas law
PV=nRT
dalton’s law
P(total)=P1+P2+P3+P4…
conversion factor between atm and mmHg
1 atm=760 mmHg
formula for density
D=m/v
At STP, what is the conversion from moles to liters for a gas?
1 mol= 22.4 L (gas)
what must a solution contain to be able to conduct electricity?
ions
3 factors that increase the rate of dissolution
temperature, agitation, particle size
what is molarity?
M=mol/L
what is a precipitate?
a solid
soluble
dissolves in water
insoluble
does not dissolve in water
what is an acid?
proton donor
what is a base?
proton acceptor
what color is litmus paper with an acid?
red
what color is litmus paper with a base?
blue
6 strong acids
H2SO4
HClO4
HBr
HI
HCl
HNO3
conjugate acid
what the base forms after it gains a proton
conjugate base
what the acid forms after it loses a proton
acid-conjugate base pair
HCl + H2O > H3O+ +Cl-
HCl, Cl-
base-conjugate acid pair
HCl + H2O > H3O+ +Cl-
H2O, H3O+
acid-conjugate base pair
NH3 + H2O > NH4+ + OH-
H2O, OH-
base-conjugate acid pair
NH3 + H2O > NH4+ + OH-
NH3, NH4+
neutralization
a reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules and a salt
hydronium ions
[H3O+]
hydroxide ions
[OH-]
hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations for BASIC solution
[H3O+] < 1x10 ^-7 M
hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations for ACIDIC solution
[H3O+] > 1×10 ^-7 M
pH range of a BASE
7.01-14
pH range of an ACID
1-6.99
q=m x Cp x delta T
q=m x Cp x delta T
Hess’s Law
the sum of delta H’s for given reactions
delta G=delta H-T delta S
delta G=delta H-T delta S
entropy
disorder, gases are most disordered
when is entropy positive?
gas is formed in the products
when is entropy negative?
solid is formed in the products
when is a reaction spontaneous?
delta G is negative
when is a reaction nonspontaneous?
delta G is positive
activation energy
minimum energy required for an effective collision
catalyst
lowers the activation energy
x

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