Final Exam Vocab

 stoichiometry
 the study of the quantitative, or measurable relationships that exist in chemical formulars and chemical reactions
 coefficients
 in a balanced equation they indicate the number of particles of each substance taking part in the reaction
 mole-mole problems
 converting from moles of one substance to moles of another
 categories of stoichiometry problems
 mass-mass mass-volume volume-volume
 mass-mass problem and steps involved
 you are given the mass of one substance to find the mass of another substance involved in the same reaction.    steps: convert the amount of the given substnace to moles using molar mass  use molar ratio to determine moles of unknown then convert that # to mass using molar mass
 mass-volume problems and steps involved
 given the mass and asked to find the volume of a gas   steps: convert given mass to moles then use molar ratio of given to find moles of unknown convert to volume using molar volume of a gas (22.4 L/mol)
 volume-volume problems
 like mole-mole problems, given a volume asked to find the unknown volume   steps: take given volume in liters multiply by ratio
 stoichiometric proportions
 qhen quantities of reactants are available in the exact ratio described by the balanced equation   means no reactants will be left over!
 the quantities of products formed in a reaction is determined by?
 the quantity of limiting reactant
 expected yield
 the amount of product that should be produced based on calculations
 actual yield
 the amount of a product that is really obtained from a chemical reaction
 percent yield
 what percent of the expected yield was acutally obtained to find: divide the actual over expected yield and multiply by 100%
 thermochemistry
 the study of the changes in heat in chemical reactions
 exothermic reaction
 reaction that releases heat
 endothermic reaction
 reaction that absorbs heat
 enthalpy
 the heat absorbed or released in a reaction depends on the difference in quantity of _____
 standard enthalpy change
 an enthalpy change that is measured when reactants in their standard states change to products in their standard states
 Hess’s law
 states that if a series of reactions are added together, the enthalpy change for the reaction will be the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps
 heat of fusion
 the enthalpy change for the melting of ice
 heat of vaporization
 the enthalpy change for the vaporization of water
 calorimetry
 the study of heat flow and heat measurement
 heat capacity
 the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of the object by 1 celsius degree
 specific heat
 the heat capacity of 1 gram of a substance
 4.184 J/g x C
 the specific heat of liquid water
 heat
 the transfer of kinetic energy from a hotter object to a colder object
 condensed states
 liquids and solids are referred to this because substances in these states have substantially higher densities than they do in the gaseous state
 intermolecular forces
 the forces of attraction between neighboring molecules
 intramolecular
 forces that exist inside the molecule; covalent bonds consist of them
 induced dipole
 a dipole that is created by the presence of a neighboring dipole
 dispersion force
 when dipoles are induced and their is a negative end of the dipole of one atom being next to the positive end of another dipole.
 dipole-dipole forces
 attractions between opposite charges of neighboring dipoles
 viscosity
 the friction or resistance to motion, that exists between the molecules of a liquid when they move past each other
 surface tension
 the imbalance of forces at the surface of a liquid results in a property
 crystalline solid
 a solid in whihc the representative particles ezist ina highly ordered repeating pattern
 unit cell
 a minimal, repeating unit. as small as possible while accurately representing the pattern
 amorphous solids
 substances that are rigid and appear solid but do not behave like crystaline solids.
 covalent-network solids
 the covalent bornds form a network extending throughout the solid crystal whihc have high melting points correponding to the breaking of strong covalent bonds
 phase change/change of state
 the conversion of a substance from one of the three physical states of matter to another. there is always a change in energy.
 vaporization
 the change of state from liquid to gas
 condensation
 chage of state from gas to liquid
 evaporation
 the process by which molecules of a liquid escape from the surface of the liquid and enter the gas phase
 equilibrium vapor pressu
 pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid; point at which the number of molecules in the vapor state remains constant
 boiling point
 the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure
 heat of vaporization
 the amount of heat necessary to vaporize a given amount of a liquid at its boiling point
 freezing point
 the temperature at which the solid and liquid forms of a substance exist in equilibrium
 heat of fusion
 the heat that is necessary to convert a given amount of a solid into a liquid
 sublimation
 the conversion of a solid directly to a gas
 deposition
 the reverse transformation of a gas directly into a solid
 heating curve
 a plot of the temperature of a sample as a function of time.
 phase diagram
 relates the states of a substance to temperature and pressure
 solution
 homogenous mixture of two or more substances in a single physical state
 particles
 atoms, molecules or ionsevenly distributed in a solution or intermingled on the molecular levelwill NOT seperate
 solute
 the substance that is dissolved
 soluvent
 the substance that does the dissolving
 soluble
 a substance that dissolves in another substance
 insoluble
 a substance that doesn’t dissolve in another
 alloys
 the most common solid solutions that contain two or more metals. They have greater strength, greater resistance to corrosion, and higher melting points that the pure elements from which they are made
 miscible
 pairs of liquids that can mix in all proportions. (water and ethanol)
 immiscible
 liquids that cannot mix in any propotions. (water and oil)
 aqueous solution
 solutions with water as the solvent
 electrolyte
 a substance that dissolves in water to form a solution that conducts an electric current
 concentrated solution
 contains a large amount of solute for the amount of solvent
 dilute solutions
 relatively small amount of solute for the amount of solvent
 concentration
 the amount of solute ina given amount of solvent or solution. Measured in molarity, molality, and mole fraction.
 molarity
 number of moles of solute dissolved in each liter of solution
 the best container for making a solution of a precise molarity
 molality
 the number of moles of solute dissolved in each kilogram of solvent
 mole fraction
 the number of moles of one component divided by the total number of moles in the solution.
 saturated
 a solution is _____when it contains as much solute as can possibly be dissolved under the existing conditions of temperature and pressure
 unsaturated
 a solution that has less than the mazimum amount of solute that can be dissolved
 supersaturated
 a solution that contains a greater amount of solute than that needed to form a saturated solution. These solutions are very unstable and do not stay this way for a long time.
 solvation
 the interaction between solute and solvent particles
 hydration
 the interaction between solute and solvent particles when the solvent is water
 solubility
 the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions.
 dipole
 seperation of charge
 polar solvent
 a liquid made up of polar molecules
 nonpolar solvent
 a liquid made up of nonpolar molecules
 henry’s law
 the solubility of a gas is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
 surface area (dissolving)
 the dissolving of a solid solute takes place here. Solvent particles pull particles form the surgace of the solute into the solution. This can be speeded up by increasing this.
 stirring (dissolving)
 a technique frequently used to speed up the solution process. It moves the heavy concentration of dissolved solute away from the surface of the undissolved solute and makes fresh solvent.Basically, contact betwwen the solvent and the solute surface is increased.
 temperature (dissolving)
 raising this of a solvent increases the rate at which the solute dissolves because solvent particles move faster and more particles come into contact with the solute. Also the solvent particles have more energy to remove particles from the solid solution
 colligative property
 a property that depeneds on the concentration of solute particles but is independent of their nature.
 the four colligative properties
 vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure
 vapor pressure reduction
 the pressure of the vapor over a solvent is reduced when a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in the solvent. Directly related to the concentration of a solution.
 osmotic pressure
 pressure required to prevent osmosis. happens when the flow of solvent particles from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution across a semipermeable membrane results in uneven heights of the solutions on either side of the membrane.
 freezing point depression
 property in whihc the freezing point of a solvent is lowered when a nonvolutile solute is dissolved in the solvent. related to concentration of solution
 boiling point elevation
 boiling point of a solvent is raised when a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in the solvent. related to the concentration of a solution.
 isotonic
 solutions with identical osmotic pressure. no osmosis
 hypotonic
 when one solution has a lower osmotic pressure than the other. placing cells in this causes water to move into the cells causing the cells to burst.
 hypertonic
 when one solution has a higher osmotic pressure. a cell in this has water leave the cells causing the cells to shrivel and die, shrinking
 reversible reactions
 The chemical reaction in whihc the products can regenerate the original reactants
 chemical equilibrium
 the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. It is the state whihc the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant with time because the rate at whihc they are formed in each reaction equals the rate at which they are consumed in the opposite reaction
 law of mass action
 expresses the relative concentartions of reactants and products at equilibrum in term of the equilibrium constant
 equilibrium constant
 Keq is a measure of the extent to whihc a reaction proceeds to completion
 equilibrium expression
 keq = products of FR/reactants
 law of chemical equilibrium
 every reversible reaction proceeds to an equilibrium state that has a specific ratio of the concentrations of reacts and products
 equilibrium position
 depends on the initial concentrations, each set of equilibrium concentrations
 homogeneous equilibria
 equilibrium conditions for reactions in which all the reactant and products are in the same state
 heterogenous equilibria
 equilibrium conditions for reactions that involve substances in more than one state
 the reaction quotient
 Q is used to find our if a reaction is at equilibrium. The concentrations that exist at the time the measurement is taken, not the equilibrium concentrations
 le chatelier’s principle
 if a change in conditions is imposed on a system at equilibrium the equilibrium position will shift in the direction tends to reduce that change in conditions
 Q < Keq
 shifts to the right
 Q > Keq
 shifts to the left
 haber process
 an industrial process in which ammonia is synthesized. uses le chateliers principle to maximize the yield of ammonia
 dissolution
 the process in which an ionic solid dissolves in a polar liquid
 precipitation
 the process in which ions leave a solution and regenerate an ionic solid
 solubility equilibrium
 when dissolution and precipitation occur at the same rate and the saturated solutions of ions and the remaining solid are in chemical equilibrium.
 solubility product
 Ksp
 ion product
 Q is used to compare the solubility product to determine if an aqueous solution of ions is supersaturated and will form a precipitate.
 precipitation reactions
 a reaction in which two solutions are mixed and a precipitate form. described by balanced equations
 sparingly soluble substance
 insoluble
 complete ionic equation
 an equation that shows all soluble ionic substances as ions
 spectator ions
 ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction.
 net ionic equation
 only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
 common-ion effect
 a shift in equilibrium that occurs because the concentration of an ion that is part of the equilibrium has changed
 indicator
 a substance that turns one color in an acidic solution and another color in a basic solution
 neutralization reaction
 the reaction between an acid and a base, where the acid neutralizes the base and vise versa
 hydronium ion
 H3O + the complex an H+ ion forms with water
 amphoteric
 a substance such as water that can act as either an acid or a base depending on the circumstances
 conjugate acid
 when a base gains an H+ ion it becomes this
 conjugate base
 when an acid loses an H+ ion it becomes this
 the acid dissociation constant
 Ka the measure of the strength of an acidthe greater the stronger it is
 base dissacoiation constant
 the strength of a baseKb
 salt hydrolysis reactions
 the reactions of ions from salts to form H3O+ or OH -1 ions
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