Final Practical

Explain the process of electrophoresis
Electrophoresis is a screening technique used to separate serum protein by relative mobility. The proteins migrate through the field by electric current toward the positive node. The rate of migration depends a charge and mass, and mobility is directly proportional to net charge.
Calculate the levels in g/dl of each protein band
Protein fraction (g/dL) = % of protein fraction x total protein (g/dL)
Acute inflammation
decreased albumin, increased alpha 1, increased alpha 2, increased beta and decreased gamma.
Chronic Inflammation
decreased albumin, increased alpha1, increased alpha2, and increased gamma.
Acute cirrhosis
decreased albumin, decreased alpha2, beta gamma bridg
Chronic cirrhosis
decreased albumin, decreased alpha2, decreased beta
Nephrotic syndrome
decreased albumin, increased alpha 2, increased beta
Hypogammaglobulinemia
severely decreased gamma
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency
decreased alpha 1
Monoclonal gammopathy
decreased albumin, increased gamma
Polyclonal gammopathy
decreased albumin, increased gamma
Acute thermal injury
decreased albumin, decreased alpha 1, and decreased gamma
Discontinuities/broken bands
Discontinuities/broken bands
Unequal migration of samples across width of gel
clean electrodes
Bacterial growth
impedes separation of proteins
Distorted bands
too much sample (crescent shape) or an air bubble present
Doughnut appearance in band
elevated protein level
User interface
computer piece
Reagents
inside the instrument
Electrodes-
inside
Printer
results
LIS interface
hospital information system
measurement requirements for blood gas analysis
Membrane free from protein build-up, bacterial contamination
Maintenance always important
Accurate calibration
Constant Temperature, usually 37?C
Correction for abnormal body temp
Accurate Barometer (internal) – altitude affects measurement
pre-analytical factors that affect blood gas parameters
pre-analytical factors that affect blood gas parameters
proper sample handling and collection for blood gas analysis
Whole blood well mixed in syringe containing heparin.
Usually collected from hand or art. line
Arterial baseline: pH, gases, cooximetry
Venous OK if O2 assessment less essential
Maintain anaerobic conditions
State five factors that affect Electrophoretic mobility
The five factors the affect Electrophoretic mobility are (1) net electric charge of the molecule (2) size and shape of molecule (3) electrical field strength (4) properties of supporting medium and (5) temperature of operation.
Calculate the concentration in g/dL for each electrophoretic fraction of a specimen having a total protein of 6.4 g/dL with 47% albumin, 4% alpha-1,
9% alpha-2, 11% beta, and 29% gamma
protein fraction (g/dL) = % protein fraction ? Total Protein (g/dL)

1.856 g/dL

What are the common problems encountered in Serum Protein Electrophoresis Analysis?
Three common problems encountered in Serum Protein Electrophoresis Analysis are (1) discontinuous or broken bands (2) unequal migration of samples across width of gel and (3) bacterial growth which impedes separation of proteins.
State Reference Ranges for arterial blood gas analysis pH
7.35-7.45
State Reference Ranges for arterial blood gas analysis ctCO2
23-29 mEq/L
State Reference Ranges for arterial blood gas analysis PCO2
35-45 mmHg
pre-analytical factors such as (air exposure, delayed testing, high altitude, etc) affect pH in blood gas analysis?
Pre-analytical factors can change the reading of the blood gas specimen produce an invalid result which does not accurate reflect the condition of the patient. Air exposure will increase the pH, decrease to pCO2 and increase the pO2. A delay in testing will decrease both the pH and pO2 but increase the pCO2. High altitudes will increase the pH and decrease both pCO2 and pO2. If the sample is collected in a tube containing liquid heparin this will decrease pH and increase pCO2. A high white blood cell count will decrease pH and pO2 but increase pCO2. Anxiety and pain will increase the pH and decrease both pO2 and pCO2.
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