Final Prep New Stuff

When cyclobutene is burned in the presence of oxygen, what are the products?
“CO2 and H20”
“An unknown compound may be heptane, 3-mehtylcyclohexene, or 2-heptene. If the red color of a bromine solution dissapears when it is added, the unknown may be: “
“2-heptene or 3-methylcyclohexene”
“The hydrogenation of an alkene gives”
“An alkane”
Metabolism
all chemical reactions that provide energy & substances required for cell growth
What are the two types of metabolism?
Catabolism and anabolism
Catabolism
Breaks down large molecules into smaller ones. Releases energy.
Anabolism
Builds large molecules out of small ones
What stage of metabolism involves the digestion of polysaccharides? (pp 22.1)
glycolysis
What is meant by a catabolic reaction in metabolism? (pp 22.2)
That large molecules will be broken down into smaller ones. (As in food digestion)
What is ATP composed of?
the nitrogen base adenine, a ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
What is ATP composed of?
an adenine base, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
What is the role of ATP in the body?
Provides energy
What is a coupled reaction? (What two kinds of reactions make one up?)
A combination of an energy-requiring reaction with an energy-producing one
Why is ATP considered a high-energy comppund? (pp 22.7)
Because it produces 7.3 kcal/mol of energy when hydrolyzed
What reaction does NADH+ participate in?
And what type of bonds does it form?
Oxidation reactions, forms carbon/oxygen double bonds
What happens in an oxidation reaction?
A loss of Hydrogen/electrons. Caused by addition of oxygen
What occurs in a reduction reaction?
A gain of hydrogen/electrons. Oxygen is lost.
What vitamin component does NAD+ contain?
niacin
What is the function of NAD+ as a coenzyme? (Does it undergo oxid or red reactions and what does it produce?)
Oxidizes to produce carbon/oxygen double bonds
What vitamin component does FAD contain?
riboflavin (vitamin B)
What does NAD+ oxidize to?
NADH
What is FAD’s function as a coenzyme?
Accepts Hydrogen from other molecules, produces Carbon/carbon double bonds (C=C)
What does FAD reduce to?
FADH2
what vitamin does CoA contain?
pantothenic acid (vitamin B3)
What is CoA’s function as a coenzyme
Activates acyl groups to produce thioesters
Why are thioester bonds important?
They are energy-rich
What coenzyme (NAD, FAD, CoA) creates carbon/carbon double bonds?
FAD
What is the general reaction that occurs during carbohydrate reaction? (pp 22.17)
hydrolysis
What are the functional units of lactose?
Galactose and glucose
What are the monosaccharides that make up sucrose?
fructose and glucose
what are the functional units of maltose?
glucose and glucose
What is the starting molecule of glycolysis?
glucose
what are the products of glycolysis?
2 ATP

2 pyruvate

2 NADH

How many carbons does pyruvate contain?
3
What are the two stages of glycolysis?

“Energy investing phase” (AKA the part where 2 ATPs are used to make sugar phosphates)

“The energy generating phase” (AKA hydrolysis of sugar phosphates to produce 2 pyruvates, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH.

What happens in “Stage 1” of glycolysis
2 ATPs are used to attach phosphate groups to glucose, creating sugar phosphates.
What happens in “Stage 2” of glycolysis?
The sugar phosphates produced in stage one undergo a series of hydrolysis reactions to produce 2 pyruvates, 2 ATPs, and 2 NADH molecules.
What are the three possible pyruvate pathways?
Fermentation, Lactate production, acetyl CoA production
Which of the pyruvate pathways occur under anaerobic conditions?
Fermentation and Lactate production
Which of the pyruvate pathways occur under aerobic conditions?
Acetyl CoA production
What are the products of fermentation?
ethanol and CO2
What occurs during lactate production?
pyruvate remains in the cytoplasm and is reduced to lactate.
What is the role of NAD+ in lactate production?
It is used to oxidize glyceraldehyde to produce a small amount of ATP
What occurs in acetyl CoA production?
pyruvate moves from the cytoplasm to the matrix to be oxidized.Carbon is removed from pyruvate as CO2, and acetyl CoA is the product
Three enzymes that ‘officially’ regulate glycolysis
Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase
Under what conditions is glucagon secreted?
When blood sugar is low
what is glucagon’s effect on glycolysis, and why?
it inhibits glycolysis, because glycolysis reactions use glucose, and since blood sugar is low when glucagon is secreted, more glucose shouldn’t be taken away.
What is glucagon’s effect on gluconeogenesis, and why?
activates, because gluconeogenesis creates glucose, which is needed when glucagon is secreted.
What is glucagon’s effect on glycogenolysis and why?
activates glycogenolysis, because glycogenolysis breaks down stored glycogen to help restore blood glucose levels
What effect does glucagon have on glycogenesis, and why?
It inhibits it, because glycogenesis pulls glucose out of the bloodstream to start its reactions.
Under what conditions is insulin secreted?
When blood sugar is high
what effect does insulin have on glycolysis, and why?
It activates it, because glycolysis stimulates the breakdown of glucose to produce energy
What effect does insulin have on gluconeogenesis and why?
It inhibits it, because gluconeogenesis FORMS glucose, and if insulin is being secreted, blood glucose is already high
What is insulin’s effect on glycogenolysis, and why?
inhibits it, because glycogenolysis stimulates the hydrolysis of glycogen to form glucose.
what is insulin’s effect on
Which part of the cell does the Cori cycle occur?
????
Can secondary alcohols be oxidized? If so, what are the products?
Yes, to ketones
Can primary alcohols be oxidized? If so, what is the product(s)?
Yes, aldehydes to carboxylic acids
Can tertiary alcohols be oxidized? If so, what is the product(s)?
No
What is a primary alcohol?
the the carbon that the -OH is attached to is attached to only one other thing
what is a secondary alcohol?
when the carbon that the -OH is attached to is attached to two other things (alkyl groups)
What is a tertiary alcohol?
When the carbon carrying the -OH group is attached to three other alkyl groups
What is the product of the hydration of 1-pentene?
a secondary alcohol
What carboxylic acid and amine are used to make acetaminophen?
ethanoic acid and 4-hydroanaline
What is the difference between an ester and and ether?
An ether doesn’t contain an alcohol, and an ester does.
In the presence of an (alkane or alkene), the red color of a Bromine solution disappears.
alkenes
Parathon binds to the active site of an enzyme. What is it?
irreversible inhibitor
what is a cofactor that is a small organic molecule?
coenzyme
What is the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone?
aldehydes have the double bonded oxygen at the end of the chain, ketones have it inside the chain
which RNA covalently attaches to amino acids?
tRNA
the products from the saponification of a triacylgylcerol would be
glycerol and fatty acid salts
What kinda of side chains create salt bridges?
acidic and a basic
what is the basic structure of an amino acid?
H2N-CH(R)-C(=O)-OH
Glycogenesis (def)
Synthesis of glycogen from glucose
When does glycogenesis occur?
When blood glucose(blood sugar) is high.
What is the enzyme that drives glycogenesis?
glycogen synthase
What is glycogenolysis?
The breakdown of glycogen to glucose
What is the main enzyme that drives glycogenolysis?
glycogen phosphorylate
When does glycogenolysis occur?
when blood sugar is low/during strenuous exercise
What is gluconeogenesis?
production of glucose from carbons retrieved from amino acids, lactates, and glycerol.
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
The liver
What is the role of gluconeogenesis and why?
source of glucose after glycogen stores are depeleted, usually during fasting or really heavy exercise.
What are the starting molecules of gluconeogenesis?
2 Pyruvates and lactate
What is the energy requirement of gluconeogenesis?
4ATP, 4GTP, and 2NADH
What are bypass reactions and why do they occur?
Bypass reactions make gluconeogenesis ‘energetically favorable’ by skipping over the 3 energy-requiring reactions that normally occur during glycolysis
What are the 3 energy-requiring reactions during glycolysis?
Reactions 1, 3, and 10
What are the hormones that drive the 3 energy-requiring reactions in glycolysis?

hexokinase (reaction 1)

phosphofructokinase (reaction 3)

pyruvate kinase (reaction 10)

what effect does insulin production have on glycogenesis and why?
activates it, because glycogenesis takes glucose out of the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen.
Cori cycle and when it occurs
controls the flow of lactate and glucose between muscles and liver to prevent lactate buildup in muscle. Most active after strenuous exercise
Citric Acid Cycle (def)
degrades acetyl CoA to yield CO2 and energy to produce NADH+H and FADH2 needed for ATP production in metabolism
Where does the Citric Acid Cycle occur?
Matrix of the mitochondria
What are the products of the Citric Acid Cycle?
3 NADH, 1FADH2, 1GTP
How much ATP is produced per Citric Acid Cycle?
12
Acteyl CoA as entry molecule
acetyl group from Acetyl CoA bonds to (some thing) to make HS-CoA
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Inner membrane of mitochondria
Where do NADH and FADH2 originate from?
Matrix of mitochondria
What is the final e- acceptor in the e- transport chain?
Oxygen (from water)
What are the e- carriers? (4)
FMN, FeS clusters, Coenzyme Q, cytochrome
What complexes undergo proton pumping?
Complexes I, III, IV
Chemeosmotic model (what and by who)
Peter Mitchell’s model which explains proton pumping and how the proton concentration gradient in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria than in the matrix, creating a concentration gradient. H+ will tavel down the gradient to the matrix, where it helps ATP production
Why is ATP synthase dependent on H+ produced by e- transport chain?
because it provides energy to make ATP
How much ATP is produced per NADH
3 ATPs
How much ATP is produced per FADH2?
2 ATPs
How much ATP is produced from glycolysis?
6 ATP
(-2 used to activate, +6 for oxidation, -2 for NADH transport, and +4 from phosphorylation)
how much ATP is produced from pyruvate?
6 ATPs
How many ATPs are produced from ONE Citric acid cycle?
12
how many citric acid cycles occer per glucose molecule?
2 (means 24 ATPs produced from CAC for one glucose)
How much ATP does it take to transport NADH to e- chain?
-2 ATPs
How are triacylgylerols digested?
They are initially broken down through emulsification by bile salts in small intestine. Then micelles (emulsified triacylglycerols) are hydrolyzed (by pancratic lipase) and are broken down into monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids. These are absorbed into intestinal lining, where they reform and are coated with proteins, creating chylomicrons which are released into bloodstream.
what happens to chylomicrons once they reach the cells?
They are hydrolyzed into glycerol and free fatty acids and used for energy production
Where are triacylglycerols stored?
adipose tissue
fat mobilization
breaks down stored triacylglycerols into fatty acids and glycerol
Three steps of fatty acid breakdown

Activation: Coenzyme A, energy required

Transport: by carnitine

Β-oxidation: products of 1 cycle

how do you calculate how many acetyl CoAs are produced from a given fatty acid?
take number of carbons in fatty acid chain, and divide by 2
how do you calculate the number of cycles needed to breakdown a given fatty acid?
take how many carbons are in chain, divide by 2, subract 1
x

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