Final Review

periodic law
when elemets are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physica and chemical properties
metals
are good cnductors of heat and electricity, have a high luster, and are usually malleable and ductile
nonmetals
poor conductors of heat and electricity, tend to e brittle
metalloids
generally have properties similar to metals and nonmetals, their behavior can often be controlled by changing the conditions
alkali metals
group 1a elements in the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
group 2a elements on the periodic table
halogens
group 7a elements on the periodic table
noble gases
group 8a elements, the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are filled
representative elements
group 1a through 7a, display a wide range of physical and chemical properties, s and p sublevels of the highet occupied energy level are not filled, its group number equals the number of electron in its highet occupied energy level
representative elements
group 1a through 7a, display a wide range of physical and chemical properties, s and p sublevels of the highet occupied energy level are not filled, its group number equals the number of electron in its highet occupied energy level
transition metal
one of the groub B elements in which the highest occupieds sublevel and a nearby d sublevel generally contain electrons
inner transition metal
highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons
valence electrons
electronsin the highest occupied energ level
valence electrons
electronsin the highest occupied energ level
octet rule
by Gibert Lewis
in foring compounds, atoms tend to achieve electron configurations of a noble gas
halide ion
ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons
all halide ions have a charge of 1-
ionic compounds
compounds composed of anions and cations
usually metal cations and nonmetal anions
electrically neutral
ionic compounds
compounds composed of anions and cations
usually metal cations and nonmetal anions
electrically neutral
ionic compounds
compounds composed of anions and cations
usually metal cations and nonmetal anions
electrically neutral
ionic bond
the electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds
ionic bond
the electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds
chemical formula
shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of that substance
eg: NaCl
formula unit
lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
eg: NaCl (1:1), MgCl2 (1:2)
properties of ionic compounds
chrystalline solids at room temperature
high melting points
can conduct an electrical current when melted or dissolve in water
coordination number
the number o ions of opposite charge that surroud the ion in a chrystal
metallic bonds
the attraction of the free-floating valence electrons forthe positively charged metal ions
forces of attraction that hold metals together
alloys
mixtures composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
eg: brass=copper+zinc
covalent bond
held together by sharing electrons
molecule
neutral group of atoms joined by covalent bonds
diatomic molecule
molecule consisting of two atoms
molecular compound
comound composed of molecules
tend to have lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds
molecular formula
chemical formula of a molecular compound
shows how many atoms of each element a molecule contains
single covalent bond
two atoms hld together by sharing a pair of electrons
structural formula
represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
unshared pair
lone pair, non-bonding pair
pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms
double covalent bond
bond that involves two shared pair of electrons
triple covalent bond
bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons
coordinate covalent bond
covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
polyatomic ion
a tightly bond grup of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as unit
eg: NH4+
bond dissociation energy
the enery required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms
resonance structure
a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures
the octet rule cannot be satisfied when
a molecule’s total number of valence electrons is an odd number
monatomic ions
consist of a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of one ormore valence electrons
polyatomic ions
ions composed of more than one atom
their names usually end in -ite or -ate
binary compound
composed of two elements and can either be ionic or molecular
prefixes for binary compounds
1 – mono, 2 – di, 3 – tri,4 – tetra, 5 – penta, 6 – hexa, 7 – hepta, 8 – octa, 9 – nona, 10 – deca
law of definite proportions
in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions
law of multiple proportions
whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, he different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers
-ide ending indicates
binary compound
-ide ending indicates
binary compound
-ide ending indicates
binary compound
-ite or -ate endings
polyatomic ion that includes oxygen
-ate indicates more oxygen
prefixes indicate
the compound is molecular
roman numeral after the name of a cation
shows the ionic charge of the cation
mole
6.02 x 1023 representative particles of that substance and is in the SI unit for measuring the amount of a substance
Avogadro’s number

6.02 x 102

the number of representative particles in a mole

molar mass
the mass of a mole of an element
to calculte: find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound, then add the masses of the elements in the compound
Avogadro’s hypothesis
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
standard tempeature and pressure (STP)
0 degrees celcius
273 K
1 atm
101.3 kPa
chemical equation
a representation of a chemical reaction
the formulas of the reactants are connectd by an arrow with the formuls of the products
skeleton equation
chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and products
catalyst
a substance that speeds up a reaction but is not used up
coefficients
small whole numbers that are placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance it
balanced equation
each side of the equation has the same number of each atoms of each element and mass is conserved
combination reaction
chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance
decomposition reaction
chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products
single replacement reaction
chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound
activity series
lists metal in order of decreasing activity
a reactive metal will replace any metal listed below it in the activity series
double replacement reaction
chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds
combustion reaction
chemical change in which an element or compound reacts with oxygen often proucing energy in the form of heat and light
stoichiometry
the calculation of quantities in chemical reactions
mole ratio
conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation interpreted in terms of moles
kinetic energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic theory
gas pressure
results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object
vacuum
an empty space with no particles and no pressure
atmospheric pressure
results from the collision of atoms and molecules in air with objets
barometer
device used to measure atmospheric pressure
pascal (Pa)
SI unit of pressure, very small amount
standard atmosphere (atm)
the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 5 degrees C
compressibility
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
Boyle’s law
for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with the pressure
P1 x V1=P2 x V2
Charles’s law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant
V1/T1=V2/T2
Gay-Lussac’s law
the pressure of a gas is directly proportional tote Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant
P1/T1=P2/T2
combined gas law
calculations when only amount is constant
P1 x V1 /T1=P2 x V2 /T2
ideal gas constant
(R) 8.31 (LxkPa)/(Kxmol)
ideal gas law
PV=nRT
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