final study guide

What is chemistry
The study of composition of matter and the change it over goes
What is the SI unit of energy
Joules
What is a physical change
An alteration of a substance that does not change what the substance is changes what it looks like
What is an atom
the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element.
What is an atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element —-blue number
What is an isotope
Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass due to different numbers of neurons.
What is an alpha particle
a positively charged particle emitted from certain radioactive nuclei. It consists of two protons – two neutrons and is identical to the nucleus a helium atom
What is nuclear FISSON
The splitting or nucleuis into smaller fragments
What is nuclear FUSION
occurs when nuclear combine to produce a nucleus or greater mass.
What are the units for frequency
1/5 ovs – also hertz (HZ)
Who explained the photoelectric effect and what is the photoelectric effect.
Albert Einstein – The photoelectric effect is when metals effect electrons called photo electrons when light shines on them
What is the ground state? What is the excited state
Ground state – the lone electron of a hydrogen atom in its lowest energy level. Excited state Lone electron of a hydrogen atom at its highest energy Excited steak – never mind
Who should be created (killed) for creating the Periodic table of elements
Dimitri Mendeleev – a typical russion chemist with too much time on his hands during a cold winter.
What are the group names of the following groups on the periodic table
Group 1 – alkali metals
Group 2 – alkaline earth metals
groups 3-12 — transition metals
group 17 — halogens
group 18 – noble gases
Which subatomic particle is responsible for the properties of and element?
Electrons – the electrons take place in bonding b/c they are not in the necleus
What happens when an atom loses electrons ? when an atom gains electrons.
loses electrons – becomes negative- cation
gains electrons – becomes positive – anion
What is alloy —example please
A partial or complete solid solution.
check this one Dictionary says – a mixing of two or more metals to add better hardness – example brass is an alloy of copper and zinc – copper is used as alloy to make gold coins
How many atoms do the following groups gain/lose when they become ions>
Group 1 – lose one electron = +1
Group 2 – lose two electron = +2
group 13 – lose three + +3
group 15 – gains 3 electrons = -3
group 16 – gains 2 electrons = -2
group 17 – gains 1 = -1
What is the octet rule
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure or a noble gas —- usually eight valance electrons
What suffix is included on all monatomic anions
always ide from an element
How many electrons are shared in a single bond — double bond —-triple bond
single 2
double 4
triple 6
What are the electronegativity difference ranges for nonpolar bonds? For polar bonds? for ionic bonds
nonpolar covalent 0.0 – 0.4
polar – .5 – 2.0
ionic > than 2.0
What are the five common molecule shapes and how do you identify them? What are their bond angles?
What is a polar bond
a bond formed when 2 different atoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared equally
What is a dipole
A molecule that has two electrically charged regions or poles
She study guide for question 27
what is the density formula
density = mass/volume (mass over volume)
What are the steps of scientific method
observation – hypothesis – experiment – theory
What is scientific law
a concise statement that summarizes the results of mans observations and experiments
What is a theory
a thoroughly tested model that explains when experiments give certain results
What are the rules for significant figures when multiplying/dividing? When adding/ subtracting
You choose or simplify to the least decimal
What is absolute zero
the zero point on the Kelvin scale equivalent to -273 degree Celsius. All molecular motion theoretically stops at this temp.
What is an element
a substance that cannot be changed into a simpler substance under normal laboratory conditions.
What is a compound
A substance that can be changed into simpler substances only by chemical reactions
what are the postulates of Dalton’s theory of matter – fascinating
1. all atoms are composed of tiny invisible particles called atoms.

2. Atoms of the same elements are identical — different from other elements

3. atoms of different elements can physically mix together or chemically combine

4. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined or realigned.

What is the mass number of an element
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. decimal points is an average
What are parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in order from lowest frequency/lowest energy to highest frequency/ highest energy
Radio waves | microwaves| infrared| Roxobiv visible| ultra violet| x-rays | Gamma rays

Starts lowest ends with highest

What are the quanta of light called
PHOTON not to be confused with futons
low frequency -low energy -high wavelength
and
high frequency – high energy – low wavelengths
What are the three rules that govern electron configurations?
1. Alpha beta principle – electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first

2. Pauli (?) exclusion principle – an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons

3. Hand’s rule – when electrons occupy orbital of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contains one electron with a parallel spin

What are the rows of the periodic table called? the columns?
rows – preiods —
columns – groups
what are valence electrons
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
What is ionization energy
the energy required to remove on electron from a gasest atom
what is an ionic bond
a bond in which two atoms share a pari of electrons
Fill in the blank
Covalent bonds occur between NON METAL AND NON METAL. Ionic bonds occur between NON METALS AND METALS
What is the VSEPR theory
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory: because electron pairs repel molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible.
What are the states of matter and how are they characterized
gas – composed of particles
solid – has definite shape and volume
liquid- flows fixed volume
what is a heterogeneous mixture
Dad in a pink Ralph Lauren Polo and Levi’s

Components are not readily distinguished but you can see the parts

what value is an element’s identify based upon
Atomic number (number of protons)
What is a beta particle
FaST — ?????? ELECTRON EMITTED FROM CERTAIN RADIO ACTIVE NUCLEI. IT IS FORMED WHEN A NEUTRON DECOMPOSES INTO A PROTON AND AN ELECTRON
what is the dual nature of light
Light can be made as a wave or a particle
wHAT IS AN ORBITAL
Really question 53
space around nucleus where electrons are probatiter?????
What is atomic radius
one half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms
Give some properties of ionic compounds
1. Composed of metal cations and non metal anions
2. electrically neutral
3. usually solid crystals at room temp
4. melt at high temperatures
What determines the polarity of a bond
If the bond is covalent and if electrons are shared unequally
what determines the polarity of a molecule
The shape of the molecule and the polarity of the bond
what is a chemical change
an irreversible change that makes or breaks a chemical into a new one
What us the SI unit of temperature
Kelvin
What is a physical property
1. Must be seen
2. Honey Child’s presents on the dining room carpet
3. a quality of a substance that can be observed or measured with out changing the substances chemical composition
What is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture
Not to be confused with Hetrogeneous earlier question
You can not see the parts. AKA – President Bush just seems like a bunch of nothing. A mixture that is not uniform in composition the components are not readily distinguished.
Next question see study guide number 62
What are the three subatomic particles? Give their charges, mass and their location in the atom.
What is half life
Question 65 can’t read the answer
the time required for one half of the atom or a radioistope to
What are the four properties by which waves are measured Question 64
1. wave length – how long and steep
2. Speed – how fast it is going
3. Amplitude – the up and down extent of the vibrations of an electronic wave
4. Frequency – the umber of cycles in the wave
What is quantum
the amount of energy needed to move an electron form its present energy level to the next higher one.
What is periodic law
1. when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, this creates repetition.
2. the front door will close if the dogs bark to much! But what is too much. Sorry wrong class I was thinking philosophy
What is malleability
1. the speed which a physical property can move around the Mall.
2. A MATERIALS ABILITIES TO DEFORM UNDER COMPRESSIVE ENERGY
What is electronegativity
1. Conversations with Aggie
2. a property of an atom that describes the ability to attract electrons.
What is a periodic trend for atomic radius
one half of the distance between the nuclei for two atoms in a ??????? molecule
Question 69
Compare/contrast single, double, and triple bonds in terms of bond length and strength.
single is smallest, the double and triple are the strongest.
Who came up with the Plum Pudding model of the atom? Should like I made up this question
Julia Child? NO it was
JJ Thornson
Who came up with the Planetary model of the atom
Bohr Model not to be confused with BORN shoes available at VON Maur
Who wont the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics
Aggie
Antoine Henre Becauevel and Pierre and? Mariecurie
Who won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Limus Pauling (not sure on spelling)
Questions 75 – 76 – 77 – 78 – 79 are all on the study guide.
Hopes this helps and made studying more fun.
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