FINALAMENTE

nitric acid
HNO3
phosphoric acid
H3PO4
Hydrogen Sulfate Ion
HSO4
lactic acid
C3H6O3
Acetic acid
CH3COOH
Carbonic acid
H2CO3
Boric acid
H3BO3
hydrocyanic acid
HCN
Sodium Hydroxide

NaOH

 

 

 

(base)

Ammonia

NH3

 

(base)

1KWh = how many kJ; how many MJ?
3600 kJ; 3.6 MJ
what is a calorie?
the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1° C/K
1 cal =
4.184 J
BOYLE’S LAW def
Pressure and volume are inversely proportional, when the temperature and # moles are constant
BOYLE’S LAW
P1V1=P2V2= nRT at constant temp.
CHARLE’S LAW def
Volume and temp. are directly proportional when the pressure and number of moles are constant
CHARLE’S LAW
V1/T1 = V2/T2 = nR/P at constant pressure
AVAGADRO’s LAW def
equal volumes of gas at the same temp. and pressure contain the same # of molecules

AVAGADRO’s LAW

V1/n1 = V2/n2 = RT/P
STP
T=273° K; P=1atm
standard molar volume
22.4 L
ideal gas law
PV= nRT
ethanol
C2H5OH
Ionic bond
metal + nonmetal; transfer of e’s takes place
Covalent bond
sharing of electrons;;uses prefixes
Phosphate
PO43-
Nitrate
NO3
Kinetic Molecular Theory

;

  1. Large distance between particles
  2. Particles move in straight lines
  3. Kinetic energy is conserved
  4. Particles are tiny compared with distance btwn them

;

Intermolecular bonds in order of strength

Hydrogen

Dipole-dipole

Dispersion

Intensive
the amount does not matter, ex: temp
Extensive
the amount matters, ex: mass
hydrogen bonds
btwn H and strongly electroneg. atoms (O,N,F)
dipole-dipole bonds
btwn any 2 polarm molecules
physical property
properties that can be observed without changing the nature of the substance (ie: tasting an apple)
dispersion/london forces

nonpolar but temporary delocalization of electrons;;

although weak, many of them, keep liquid/solid together

Anode
positively charged electrode where oxidation occurs;
Cathode
negatively charged electrode where reductions occurs
Ions: def/types

atom(s) that carry a charge

;

ANIONS: negative

CATIONS:positive

Dalton’s postulates

all elements are made of small indivisable particles:atoms

 

all atoms have almost identical (chemical) properties

 

atoms combine in whole number ratios to form compounds

 

atoms can’t be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

prefixes
1:mono, 2:di, 3:tri, 4:;tetra, 5:penta, 6:hexa, 7:hepta, 8:;octa, 9:nona, 10:deca
When oxidation occurs, energy is usually________.
released
OIL-RIG

Oxidation: electons/energy is lost

;

Reduction: electrons/energy is gained

For reactions with oxygen, oxygen is always…
reduced
OXIDATION

;electrons LOST;

hydrogen atoms lost;

gain of oxygen atoms

A reducing agent is…
a compound that gets oxidized
atomic # is the _______
# of protons OR #electrons
How were electrons discovered?
Crookes tubes- produced streams called cathode rays.
Group 1
Alkali metals
Group 2
Alkali earth metals (soapy)
Group 6A
Chalogens (most stable on earth)
Group 7A
Halogens (salt generators)
SI units for mass

grams; kg=1000g;;

;

mg=1/1000 g

;

;g=1/106 g

;

ng= 1/109 g

;

pg= 1/1012 g

Reduction

the addition of hydrogen to a substance;

;

the gain of electrons

Some catalysts used when hydrogen is added to a compound

Pd (palladium)

Ni (nickel)

Pt (platinum)

Acids are…
proton donors.
Bases are…
proton acceptors.
Weak acids produce…

a relatively small fraction of the maximum number of possible hydronium ions.

Period v.s. Group

period = Row, across, in the periodic table.

;

group = verticle grouping, columns

Sig.figs

Leading zeroes are NOT sig.

;

Trailing zeroes after the decimal point ARE.

;

Internal zeroes ARE.

;

Whole numbers ending in zeroes are ambiguous;

solved by placing a . or converting to scientific notation

Exact numbers
no uncertainty; infinate # of significant figures
xRAYs

Alpha = 2+ positive; 4g

;

Beta= 1- negative; 1/2000 g

;

Gamma= neutral; no mass

isotopes def.

atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons

;

;

(same place on periodic table)

Ground state; Realxation

ground state: when the electrons stay close to nucleus

;

;

relaxation: after excitation, the electrons come close

again; energy is given back during this state

How do you find the # possible electrons per orbit level?

2n2

;

n being the orbit level

When electrons jump from a higher to lower orbit,
there is an emission of light.
Ag is…
Silver; always 1+
Zinc always has a charge of
2+
Naming covalent compounds

Most Metallic element is first (CO2)

;

Oxygen is always last.

;

Use prefixes!

;

ends in -ide.

Guessing polarity based on electronegativity scale

NONpolar: difference is ; 0.5

;

polar: 0.5 ; difference ;2

;

ionic: if difference is ; 2

;

;

the higher the EN#, the more love for electrons; the higher EN is the neg. end and the lower is the + end.

carbonate
CO32-
Lewis formulas (HONC)

hydrogen has 1 bond

oxygen has 2 bonds

nitrogen has 3

carbon has 4

;

if there are several atoms the least electronegative will be in the cener (except H)

;

distribute to peripheral e’s first, then central

free radical
have odd # of electrons; very reactive
electron geometry v.s. molecular shape

each pair of e’s = an electron set

*a double bond counts as 1 set

;

;

E.G refers to central atom, bonding; nonbinding

;

M.S. refers to bonded atoms ; 3Dshape

electron domain
1 pair of electrons, bonding or nonbinding; could be a;double bond; a triple bond
Avagadro’s #
6.022 x 1023 atoms
Molar mass v.s. formula mass

molar mass is in g/mol

 

formula (molecular) mass is in amu

Stoichiometry

In balenced chemical equations: A,B, and C are equivalent

 

A+B =C

 

A/B is an ex: the stoichiometric factor

temperature

measure of kinetic energy of atoms and molecules INSIDE an object

 

kelvin is the SI unit. 

K° = C° + 273°

Exothermic
heat is produced; hot to the touch
Endothermic
Heat is required for the process; feels cold to the touch
photovoltaic energy is derived from
the sun; solar converted to electrical energy
intRAmolecular forces v.s. intERmolecular

A. what keeps atoms together in molecules;

covalent and ionic bonds

 

B. what keeps molecules together

electrolytes

solutions of ionic substances that conduc electricity

 

 

if dissociation is complete: they’re strong electrolytes

if dissociation is partial: they’re weak electrolytes

if no dissociation, they’re NONelectrolytes

;

not all ionic substances are soluble ; not all soluble substances are electrolytes

ion-dipole interaction
in solutions of polar solvent + ionic solute, the STRONG force between the dipoles of solvent and the ions
ANHYDRIDES

react with water to form acids/bases

;

metal oxides are basic anhydrides

nonmetal oxides are acidic anhydrides

How are antioxidants recuding agents?
They prevent the oxidation of other* molecules in the body by being oxidized themselves.
convert grams –> mol
divide by molar mass
mol –> grams
multiply by molar mass