FINALS

Elements
simple form of matter CANT BE BROKEN DoWn(atoms)
COmponds
2 or more elements chemically combined (molecules)
physical change
when substances is changed by physical properties but still the same 
chemical change
when the chemical compostion has been attend for a NEW SUBSTANCE
Dalton
thought atom smallest particle came up with atomic theory!
thomson
cathode ray tube experiment proved atom neg. charged particle(electrons)also plum pudding model
Rutherford

gold foil experiment

FOUND NUCLEAUS

proton

1+

in nucleus

size abt the same

ELECTROn

-1

outside nucleaus

smallest of 3   1/800

neutron

0

in nucleus

abt the same

electron cloud theory
electrons traveling around nucleus on paths ENERGY levels
mendeleev
1st person credited for periodic table left gaps on chart thought more would be discovered
STRUCTURES

arranged in columns=Groups (Families)

ROws=periods

Alkali metals

1st column on far left

all have 1ve

they lose one electron

most reactive of all metals

 

ions
atom wothan overall charge
Alkaline earth metals

2nd column on left

all lose 2 electrons

2nd most reactive

halogens

next to last column on right  all have -1ve

gain 1 eletron    most reactive of non metals

noble gases

column on right(group 8)

last energy is full

UNREACTIVE because they are full

ISOTOPES
same element different mass
METALS

left of staircase

electro loses

usually solid in room temp

good conductors of heat and electricity

shiny when polished

flexible

NON METALS

right of staircase

electron gainers

low melting point most gases at room temp

poor conductors of heat and electricity

solids are dull inapperance

fragile solids

ionic bonding
transfer of VE
covalent bonding
sharing VE (nonmetals)
REMEMBER
BrINCLOHF
synthesis
a+b–>AB
decomposition
AB–>A+B
SINGLE displacment
A+Bx–>Ax+B
double displacment
Ax+By–>Ay+bx
Combustion
Ch+O2–>Co2+h2o
ACids

contains hydrogen

produces ion in water (h30)

taste sour

conducts electricity in water

reacts with metals producing hydrogen gas

poisonous and corrosive

litmus paper turns red

phenolphthslein stays colorless

ph below 7

 

bases

contains hydroxide

produces OH

tastebitter

conducts electicity

slippery

poisonous and corrosive

lithmus paper turns blue

phenolphalen turns pink

ph above 7

saLTS
are one of two byproducts of an acid and base
indicators
are chemicals that test for presence of acids or base