Findlay Chemistry- Ch 4 Key Terms

Activity Series
A list of metals in order of decreasing ease of oxidation
Aqueous Solution
A solution in which water is the solvent
Dilution
The process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one by adding solvent
Base
a substance that is a H+ acceptor; produces an excess of OH-(aq) ions when it dissolves in water
Concentration
the quantity of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution
Displacement Reaction
a type of oxidation-reduction chemical reaction where one ion or element moves from one compound into another
Strong Base
A base that ionizes completely in water
Ex: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2
Electrolyte
a liquid or gel that contains ions and can be decomposed by electrolysis
Equivalence Point
Occurs when the moles of acid equal the moles of base in a solution
Chemical Equilibrium
A condition in which a chemical reaction is occurring at equal rates in its forward and reverse directions, so that the concentrations of the reacting substances do not change with time
Indicator
A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in the solution
Metathesis (exchange) Reaction
A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions:
AX + BY —-> AY + BX
Precipitation and acid-base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions
Molarity
The concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution
Net Ionic Equation
A chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are emitted
Salt
ionic compounds that can result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base
Neutralization Reaction
a reaction in which an acid is added to a base (or a base is added to an acid) in order to form water and an inorganic salt
Nonelectrolyte
a substance that does not ionize in water and consequently gives a nonconducting solution
Oxidation
the process in which a substance loses one or more electrons
Oxidation Number(oxidation state)
A positive or negative whole number assigned to an element in a molecule or ion on the basis of a set of formal rules
Precipitate
the formation of a solid in a solution or in another solid during a chemical reaction
Precipitation Reaction
A reaction that occurs between substances in solution in which one of the products is insoluble
Reduction
a process in which a substance gains one or more electrons (loses charge)
Solute
a substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the smaller amount
Weak Base
a chemical base that does not fully ionize in an aqueous solution; NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and several more, all containing “N”
Solution
a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition
Solvent
The dissolving medium of a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the greater amount
Spectator Ions
ions that are both reactants and products in an ionic equation
Standard Solution
a solution of known concentration
Strong Acid
An acid that ionizes completely in water
Strong Electrolyte
a sola solute that mostly or completely ionizes or dissociates in a solution. conductive in a solution
Titration
The process of reacting a solution of unknown concentration with one of known concentration
Weak Acid
an acid that only partly ionizes in water
weak electrolyte
An electrolyte that does not completely dissociate in a solution
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