Flashcards for Chapter 12 in Chemistry

What is atmosphere?
the unit that is often used to report air pressure (atm)
What is a barometer?
Instrument used to measure atmoshperic pressure
What is Dalton’s law of partial pressure?
States that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gaes in the mixture
What is diffusion?
the movement of one material through another from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
What is effusion?
related to diffusion- it is where gas escapes through a tiny opening
What is elastic collision?
Elastic collision is a collision between particles in which no kinetic energy is lost
What is Graham’s law of effusion?
States that the rate of effusion for a gas is invertly proportional to the square root of its molar mass
What is the kinetic molecular theory?
Describes the behavior of matter interms of particles in motion
What is a pascal?
N/cm2
What is pressure?
Force per unit area
What is temperature?
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in matter
What is a dipole-dipole force?
Attraction between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules and is stronger than dispersion forces
What is a dispersion force?
Weak force that results from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in electron clouds
What is a hydrogen bond?
a type of dipole-dipole attraction that occurs between molecules containing a hdrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone eletron pair
What is an allotrope?
an element thatesists in different forms at the same state
What is an amorphous solid?
a solid in which the particles aren’t arranged in a regular repeating pattern
What is a crystalline solid?
Solid whose atoms/ions/molecules are arranged in a n orderly geometeric structure
What is a surfactant?
compound that lowers the surface tension of water
What is surface tension?
the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount; a measure of the inward pull by particles in the interior
What is a unit cell?
smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal
What is viscosity?
the measure of the resistance of a iquid to flow that is determined by the type of intermolecular forces in the liquid, the size and shape of the particles, and the temperature
What is a boiling point?
the temperature at whi9ch the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external/atmospheric pressure
What is condensation?
the process by which a gas/vapor becomes a liquid
What is deposition?
the process where a substance changes from a gas/vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid
What is evaporation?
when vaporization occurs only at the surface of the liquid
What is a freezing point?
the temperature at which a liquid is converted into a crystalline solid
What is a melting point?
the temperature at which the forces holding its crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid
What is a phase diagram?
a graph of pressure vs. temperature that shows in which phase a substance exists under different condisions of temperature and pressure
What is a triple point?
the point at which 3 phases of a substance can coexist
What is vaporization?
the process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor
What are the 2 types of vaporization?
Evaporation and Boiling
What is vapor pressure?
the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid
What is a critical point?
the point that indicates the critical pressure and temperature which a substance can’t exist as a liquid
What are the basic assumptions proposed by the kinetic molecular theory?
1. Gases consist of small particles that are separated from one another by empty space
2. Gas particles are in constant motion and collisions between particles are elastic
3. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in matter
What is the kinetic equation?
KE=(1/2)mv2 this says the kineteic energy equals one half times mass times velocity squared
What is Graham’s law formula?
What is a monometer?
an instrument used to measure gas pressure in a closed conatiner
What is pressure measured in when using a barometer??
mmHg (millimeter of mercury)
what is the measurement of pressure named after the inventor of the barometer?
Torre (this is the same as mmHg)
What is the unit of pressure that is abbreviated Pa?
Pascals
What is the measurement of the average pressure of air at sea level (standard pressure) called?
atmospheres (atm)
What is temperature directly proportional with?
kinetic energy
What is the type of force that holds particles together in ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds called?
Intramolecular force
What is the force that holds together identical particles/ 2 different types of particles together?
Intermolecular forces
What is the shape of the molecule dependent on?
the type of molecular force the molecule has
The thicker the liquid, the higher the what?
viscosity
What is a molecular solid?
a crystalline solid in which the molecules are held together by intermolecular forces
What is a covalent network solid?
a crystalline solid that is able to form multiple covalent bonds between molecules
What is an ionic solid?
a crystalline solid that is able to form ionic bonds with all other surounding ions
What is a metallic solic?
a crystalline solid in which a positive metal ion is surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons
What are the 2 types of fluids?
gases and liquids because they both flow
What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
Cohesion describes the force of attraction between identical molecules and adhesion describes the force of attraction between different molecules
What is melting?
when a solid becomes a liquid because the forces holding the crystal lattice together are broken
What is Sublimation?
a solid changes directly to a gas without first becoming a liquid
What is freezing?
when molecules lose kinetic energy and go from a liquid to a solid
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