Flashcards for Chapter 3 in Chemistry

What is a chemical property?
the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances
What is a chemical change?
a process involving one or more substances changing into new substances, also called a chemical reaction
What is a technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material?
chromatography
What is crystallization?
a separation technique that produces pure solid particles of a substance from a solution that contains the dissolved substance
What is a compound?
a chemical combination of two or more different elements; can be broken down into simpler substances be chemical means and has properties different from thore of its component elements
What is distillation?
a technique that can be used to physically separate most homogeneous mixtures based on the differences in the boiling points of the substances
What is an element?
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
What is the extensive property?
A physical property, such as mass, length , and volume, that is dependent upon the amount of substance present
What is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid?
filtration
What is a gas?
a form of matter that has no definite shape and no definite volume
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
a mixture that does not have a uniform compostition and in which the individual substances remain distinct
What is a homogeneous mixture?
a mixture that has a uniform composition throughout and always has a single phase; also called a solution
What is the intensive property?
a physical property that remains the same no matter how much of a substance is present
What is the law of conservation of mass?
states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical raction, but is conserved
What is the law of definite proportions?
states that, regardless, of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion
What is a liquid?
a form of matter that has only definite volume, but no definite shape. It takes the shape of its container
What is a mixture?
a physical bond of two or more pure substances retains in any proportion in which each substance retains its individual properties; can be separated by physical means
What is the periodic table?
a chart that organizes all known elements into a grid of horizontal rows(periods) and vertical rows(groups/families) arranged by increasing atomic number
What is percent by mass?
a percentage determined by the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound
What is a phase change?
a transistion of matter from one state to another
What is a physical change?
a type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not chang3e its composition
What is a physical property?
a characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition. Ex-density, color, taste, hardness, melting point, etc.
What is a solid?
a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume
What is a solution?
a uniform mixture that can contain solids, liquids, or gases; also called a homogeneous mixture
What are states of matter?
the physical forms in which all matter naturally exists on Earth-most commonly as a solid, a liquid, or a gas
What is a vapor?
a gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or a solid at room temperature
What is the difference between a chemical change and a physical change?
a chemical change causes a new composition to be formed which changes the substance’s properties while a physical change does not cause a change in properties because the composition stays the same.
What is the difference between intensive and extensive properties?
Intensive property=a physical property that remains the same no matter how much of a substance is present, Extensive property=a physical property that depends on the amount of substance present
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance?
a mixture is two or more substances that are combined together but still retain their chemical properties, while a pure substance is one substance that is not combined with any other substance
What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
a compound is a pure substance made up of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined, while a mixture is 2 or more substances that are combined but retain their individual chemical properties
What are the 5 ways to separate mixtures?
Filtration, Distillation, Crystallization, Sublimation, and Chromataography
What is Sublimation?
the process where a solid changes to a vapor without becoming a liquid or visa versa
What is the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous one?
Homogeneous looks the same throughout, Heterogeneous-you can see the different substances
What is the difference between a compound and an element?
a compound is 2 or more different elements that are chemically bonded, while an element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
What is the difference between the law of definite proportions and the law of multiple proportions?
The law of definite proportions says that 1 compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion like HO, while the law of multiple proportions says that 2 or more compounds can be made using the same elements in different proportions like HO and H2O
What is the formula for Percent by mass?

% of mass=mass of element        x100

        mass of compound

Who first developed the periodic table?
Dmitri Mendeleev
What do elements in the same goup/family have in common?
similar physical and chemical properties
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