Flashcards for Chapter 5 in Chemistry

What is amplitude?
the distance from a wave’s crest or trough to it’s origin
What is frequency?
the number of waves that pass a poing per unit of time
What is the symbol for frequency?
the greek letter that looks like a v
What is the symbol for wavelength?
the upside down y
What is a photon?
a packet of light energy
What is Planck’s constant represented by?
h
What is a quantum?
the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
What is a wavelength?
the distance between two points in a wave set. crest to crest or trough to trough
What is a node?
the bottom of the wavelength also called a trough
What is a crest?
the highest point in a wavelength
What kind of wavelenth does a Higher frequency produce?
a shorter wavelength
What kind of wavelenth does a lower frequency produce?
a longer wavelength
What is an atomic orbital?
a 3-D region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron’s probable location
What is an energy sublevel?
the energy levels contained within a principle sublevel
What is a ground state?
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
What is the Heisenbergy uncertainty principle?
states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
What are the principle energy levels?
the major energy levels of an atom
In quantum numbers, what does “n” represent?
the energy level/ size
In quantum numbers, what does “l” represent?
the shape of an orbital
In quantum numbers what does “m” represent?
which plane the orbital is in
In quantum numbers, what does “ms” represent?
the direction that the orbital spins
What is the quantum mechanical model of the atom?
An atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom
When is a light quantized?
frequency of light has its own specific energy per photon and no other.
What are quanta?
the small specific amounts that matter gains/loses energy in
What is a quantum?
the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
What is the aufbau principle?
states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
What is electron configuration?
the arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by 3 rules-the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule
What is Hund’s rule?
States that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
States that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins
What are valence electrons?
electrons in an atom’s outermost orbital; determine the chemical properties of an element
What is an orbital diagram?
the circles with the arrows in them
What is frequency measured in?
Hertz
What is wavelength measured in?
meters
What does each different color of light have?
a different wavelength
What is the shape of the “s” orbital?
spherical shaped
What is the shape of the “p” orbital?
dumbell shaped
List the orbitals in order.
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p, 8s
How many electrons does the sublevel “s” hold?
2
How many electrons does the sublevel “p” hold?
6
How many electrons does the sublevel “d” hold?
10
How many electrons does the sublevel “f” hold?
14 electrons
What is an excited state?
where atoms absorb energy causing them to move to higher energy levels for a short peroid of time then dropping back down to lower energy levels
How do atoms emit energy that them have from returning to a lower level after being in an excited state?
in the form of light
What is ionization energy?
the amount of energy that is needed to remove an electron from a gaseous state
How do you write something in Noble gas notation?
take the noble gas that comes right before the element and put it in brackets [] then put the rest of the electron configuration that is not included in the noble gas to the right of the brackets