Flashcards for Chapter 6 in Chemistry

What are actinide series?
in the periodic table, the f-block elements from period 7 that follow the element actinuim
What are alkali metals?
Group 1 elements, except for hydrogen, they are reactive and usually exist as compounds with other elements
What are alkaline earth metals?
Group 2 elements in the modern periodic table and are highly reactive
What is a group?
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table arranged in order of increasing atomic number; also called a family
What are halogens?
Highly reactive elements in group 7A or 17
What are inner transition metals?
A type of group B element that is contained in the f-block of the periodic table and is characterized by a filled outermost orbital, and filled or partially filled 4f and 5f orbitals
What s the lanthanide series?
In the periodic table, the f-block elements from period 6 that follow the element lanthanum
What is a metal?
an element that is solid at room temperature and are located on the left of the zig-zag line, but not on it
What is a metalliod?
an element that has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals, located on either side of the zig-zag line
What is a noble gas?
an extremely unreactive group 8A(18) element
What is a nonmetal?
Element that is gernerally a gas, or a dull, brittle solid and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
What is a period?
a horizontal row of elements in the modern periodic table
What is the Periodic Law?
States that when the elements are arragned by increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their properties
What are representative elements?
elements from groups 1,2,and 13-18 in the modern periodic table, possessing a wide range of chemical and physical properties(all but the transition and inner transition metals)
What are transition elements?
elements in groups 3-12 of the modern periodic table and are further divided into transition metals and inner transition metals
What is a transition metal?
An element in groups 3-12 that is contained in the d-block of the periodic table and, with some exceptions, is characterized by a filled outermost s orbital of energy level n and filled or partially filled d orbitals of energy level n-1
What is electronegativity?
Indicates the relative ability of an element’s atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond
What is an ion?
an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
What is ionization energy?
the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
What is the octet rule?
States that atoms lose, gain, or share electrons in order to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas
What are some properties of metals?
malleable and ductile, good conductor of electricity, lustrous, silver or white in color, good conductor of heat
What are some characteristics of nonmetals?
solids, liquids or gases; do not conduct electricity, do not conduct heat; do not react with acids; likely brittle if solid
What are some characteristics of metalloids?
combine properties of metals and nonmetals
In the element [Kr]5s24d10 What is the period? What is the block? What is the group?
The period is 5, the block is d, and the group is 12
What groups are in block “s”?
1A and 2A and helium
What groups are in block d?
group 3-10
What groups are in block p?
13-18 or 3A-8A
What groups are in f block?
the inner transition metals
As you go across the period, What does atomic radii do?
it genergally decreases
As you go down the group, What does the atomic radii do?
it increases
Why does the atomic radii decrease across a period?
the greater the atomic number the more protons that are in the nucleus which causes a greater positive charge to pull in the electrons
Why does the atomic radii increase as you go down the group?
because the farther down you go, the more energy levels you have
What happens to the ionization energy as you go down the period? as you go across the period?
down-ionization energies decrease, across-ionization energies increase
What happens to the ionic radius as you go down the group?
it decreases
Why do nonmetals have a greater ionic radius than their atomic radius?
because of the electron’s tendency to repel one another; when an electron is added, the electrons push away from one another
What does electronegativity do when you go down the period? across the period?
down- it decreases; across-it increases
What scientist came up with the Law of octaves which says the there is a periodic repetition in the elements?
John Newlands
What scientist came up with the Law of octaves which says the there is a periodic repetition in the elements?
John Newlands
What 2 scientists organized the periodic table according to increasing atomic masses?
Meyer and Mendeleev
Who came up with the modern periodic table today, and what is it based on?
Moseley; atomic number