Flashcards for Chapter 8 in Chemistry

What is a covalent bond?
the sharing of electrons between atoms
What is an endothermic reaction?
occurs when a greater energy is required to break the existing bonds in the reactants than is released when the new bonds form in the products
What is an exothermic reaction?
occurs when more energy is released during the product bond formation than is required to break bonds in the reactants
What is an oxyacid?
an acid that contains both a hydrogen atom and a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
What is resonance?
a condition when more than one valid electron dot structure can be written for a particular molecule
What is a structural formula?
a molecular model that uses symbols and bonds to show relative positions of atoms; can be predicted for many molecules by drawing the Lewis structure
What is hybridization?
a process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new identical hybrid orbitals
What is the VSEPR model?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model, which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of eletrons around the central atom
Wht is a polar covalent bond?
a type of bond that forms when eletrons are not shared equally
What is a diatomic molecule?
a molecule formed of 2 identical atoms bonded together
List the 7 atoms that form diatomic molecules.
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine
What is a molecule?
formed when 2 or more atoms bond covalently
What is a double bond?
a covalent bond in which four electrons are shared by the bonding atoms
What is a triple bond?
a bond in which 2 atoms share 3 pairs of electrons
What is bond energy?
the energy needed to break a bond
What is bond length?
the distance between 2 nuclei when 2 atoms form a molecule to their lowest potential
What is bond dissociation energy?
amount of energy required to break a specific covalent pond
What is an acid?
a substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
What are polyatomic ions?
ions composed ofseveral atoms joined with one over all charge
What is a bond angle?
the angle between bonds connecting the atoms in a molecule
What does VSEPR stand for?
valence shell electron pair repulsion
What is the difference between a polar molecule and a nonpolar molecule?
a nonpolar molecule is symetrical and doesn’t have a negative or positive end, while a polar molecule has a positive and a negative end
What is the differnce between a polar covalent bond and a nonpolar covalent bond?
the polar covalent bond has 2 poles with opposite charges caused by the pair of shared electrons being pulled closer to one atom. A nonpolar bond has an equal pull on the pair of shared electrons
What is the relationship of bond strength and the number of bonds?
as the number of bonds increases, the strength of the bond increases
What is the relationship of bond length and the number of bonds?
The greater the number of bonds, the shorter the bond length
What is the greek prefix for 1?
MONO
What is the greek prefix for 2?
Di
What is the greek prefix for 3?
tri
What is the greek prefix for 4?
tetra
What is the greek prefix for 5?
penta
What is the greek prefix for 6?
hexa
What is the greek prefix for 7?
hepta
What is the greek prefix for 8?
octa
What is the greek prefix for 9?
nona
What is the greek prefix for 10?
deca
How do you write a polyatomic ion in a Lewis Dot structure?
draw the bond, then put it in brackets, and then put the charge outside of the brackets
What kind of bond has a big difference in electronegativity?
an ionic bond
If there is an intermediate electronegativity, What type of bond is formed?
a polar covalent bond
If there is no difference in electronegativity, what type of bond is formed?
a nonpolar covalent
What are the steps in naming a molecular compound based on its formula?
Look at the formula, does the compound for an acidic aqueous solution? If yes it is an acid if no, name it like a normal compound. If yes is there oxygen present in the coupound. If no, you add hydro+the root of second element+ -ic, then acid. If the acid has oxygen, and the polyatomic ion encs with -ate, replace it with -ic. If it ends with -ite, replace it with -ous
What molecular shape has 2 total pairs and shares 2 pairs?
linear
What molecular shape has 3 total pairs and shares 3 pairs?
trigonal planar
What molecular shape has 4 total pairs and shares 4 total pairs?
tetraheral
What molecular shape has a total of 4 pairs, shares 3 pairs, and has one lone pair?
trigonal pyramidal
What molecular shape has a total of 4 pairs, shares 2 pairs, and has 2 lone pairs?
bent
What molecular shape has a total of 5 pairs and shares 5 pairs?
trigonal bipyramidal
What molecular shape has a total of 6 pairs and shares 6 pairs?
octahedral
What does a linear molecule look like?
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What does a trigonal planar molecule look like?
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What does a tetrahedral molecule look like?
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What does a trigonal pyramidal molecule look like?
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What does a bent molecule look like?

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Yellow are lone pairs

What does a trigonal bipyramidal molecule look like?
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What does an octrahedral molecule look like?
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