Forensic Chemistry Final Review

Final Review
What is the definition of point of convergence
2 dimensional surface over which the direction of several bloodstains can be retraced

What are the three major classes of fingerprint patterns


loops, whorl, arch
the technology of DNA typing has its beggiing in 1985 with the work of
Alec Jeffery
What is the most common ridge pattern
The _____is the original part of the bore left after rifling grooves are formed
_____ in the fluid portion of unclotted blood
How many different bases are associated with the make up of DNA
As blood stains form at more and more acute angles, what happens to the shape of the blood
become more elongated
What is the number od deltas found in a typical arch pattern
The diameter of the gun barrel is known as it’s
Assume that won strands of DNA have been seperated and that the base sequence on one strand is A-T-G-C. What is the sequence of bases on the second strand?
The liquid that separated from the blood when a clot is formed is called
The number of lands and grooves is a ___ characteristic of a barrel.
At what time area are a person’s finger prints formed
Fetal Development
The production if amino acid is coded by a sequence of hoe many bases on the DNA molecule?
Fingerprints develope on what layer of skin
Dermal papillae
When a droplet of blood strikes a surface at an angle perpendicular to that surface, what is the shape of the blood stain
Portions of the DNA molecules useful for DNA typing
non-coding DNA frags that are repeated many times
The_____characteristics of a rifled barrel are formed by striations impressed in the barrel’s surface.
Sweat glands on the surfaces of the hands and feet do not produce oil?
_____transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs
The most important instrument for comparing bullets is the
Comparison microscope
DNA is a polymer – What is the repeating unit (monomer) of DNA
True: Nucleotide
On bullets fired in succession from the same weapon, all of the individual characteristics are always identical
What is the fingerprint classification system that is used in england-speaking countries
Henry System
_____ velocity blood spatter usually has less then 1mm in diameter size range.
It is____ possible to determine the make of a weapon by examining a bullet it fired
The experience of the investigator can determine the minimun number of ridge characteristics needed to match two fingerprints
What are components of a nucleotides?
Nitrogenous bases: phosphorous containing, sugar, nitrogen base
On the surface of RBC are chemical substances called____which impart blood type characterristics to the cells
What is the technique that can produce many copies of segments of DNA?
A shotgun has a_____barrel
What is the computerize system for storing fingerprints?
_____Velocity blood spatter usually falls in 1-4 mm in diameter size range
In a DNA process, the transfer of DNA fragments onto a nylon membrant is called what?
Southern blotting
The diameter of a shotgun barrel is expressed by the term
Type A individuals have____and____ antigens on the RBCs
Prints that are not readily visible or known as
Shotgun pellets can be individualized to a single weapon
During gel electrophoresis the DNA is separated by
fragment size
What could be the cause of high celocity blood spatter
gun shot
A cartridge case(can, can’t) be individualized to a single weaopm
_______probes are used to visualize RFLP DNA fragments
Type O individuals have (both, neither) A and B antigens on their RBCs
t or f: the shape of the indentation caused by the firing pin may be a characteristic peculiar to a firearm
prints impressed into a bar of soap are known as
The rate at which large DNA fragments move through the electrophoresis gel is____the rate which small DNA fragments move through the same gel
less than
t or f: The distribution of gunpowder particles and other discharge from which the gun was fired
What could be the cause of high velocity blood spatter
gun shot
t or f: Without the benifits of a weapon, an examiner can mane an exact determination of firing distance
what fingerprinting method can be used on hard, on porous surfaces
super glue fuming
An_______photograph may help visualize gunpowder deposits around a target.
What are advantages of working with shore DNA fragments

more stable

less likely to break apart

quantity ampliified with PCR

less subject to degradation

The presence or absence of the ___ and ___ antigens on the RBC’s determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O system
Current methods for identifying a shooter rely on the detection of(primer, gunpowder) residues on the hands.
The Discrimination power of mitochondrial DNA is____the discrimination power of STR analysis
less than
What is an example of hard, nonporous surface?
glass, metal
Determining whether an individual has fired a weapon is done by measuring the elements_____and _____present on the hands.
barium; antimony
What are the names of three types of impace spatter
low, medium, high
STR normally consists of repeating sequences of____bases
t or f: Firings with all types of ammunition can be detection by hand swabbing with nitric acid
What is an example of a hard, non porous surface?
glass, metal
The D antigen is also known as the___antigen
t or f: Restoration of serial numbers is possible because in the stamped zone the metal is placed under a permanent strain that extends beneath the original numbers
How many regions of mitochondrial DNA have been found to be highly variable in the human population
what is the definition of projected bloodstain
subjected to an action of force reater than gravity
What fingerprinting methods can be used on soft, porous surfaces

iodine fuming


gentian(i dunno man)

What is the national system of share DNA databases of DNA typing information from convicted criminals and crime scene evidence
What is an example of a soft porous surface
paper, cloth
What are steps in a DNA RFLP typing process

Digestion w/ restrictive enzyme


southern blotting

hydrization w/ radioactive probe

process w/ e-ray film

Serum contains proteins known as ___which destroy or inactivate antigens
The technology of DNA typing had it beginning 1985 with the work of________
Alec Jeffery
Sublimation occurs with the use of what lifting methos
iodine fuming
Give two examples of projected blood stains
gush, cast off
how many different bases are associated with the makee-up of DNA
An antibody reacts with(any, only specific) antigen.
only specific
Ninhydrin is used to detect what molecule in latent fingerprints?
amino acid
The fundamental unit of heredity is the
What is the definition of a transfer blood stain?
when one bloody surface comes in contact w/ another
Superglue Fuming is suitable for(hard and nonporous, soft and porous) surfaces
hard and nonporous
A_____is a very large molecule made by linking a series of repeating units.
t or f: agglutination describes the clumping together of RBCs by the action of an antibody.
A________is composed of a sugar molecule, phosphorus- containing group, and a nitrogen-containing molecule called a base
Give me two examples of a transfer blood stain
swipe, smudge
What fingerprinting method produces a temporary orange/ brown prints
iodine fuming
Each gene is actually composed of____. specifically designed to carry out a single body function.
Type B blood contains____antigens and ainti____antibodies
DNA is actually a very large molecule made by linking a series of_____to form a natural polymer
What chemical treatment produced a white-appearing permanent fingerprint
What is the definition of a passive blood stain
formed by gravity acting alone
_____different basses are associated with the makeup of DNA
What fingerprinting method produces a permanent purple or violet print?
The first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by
Type AB blood has (both, neither) anti-a(and, nor) anti-b
both; and
Watson and Crick demonstrated that DNA is composed of two strands coiled into the shaped of a _____
double helix
A system of identification relying on precise body measurements is known as______
Give two examples of a passive bloodstain
drip, pool
The structure of DNA requires the pairing of base A to ___and base G to ___
The fingerprint classification system used  in most English speaking countries was devised by
Sir. Ed. Rick Henry
The term _____describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions.
The bases sequence TGCA can be paired with the base sequence
What are the four components of blood?
plasma, plate RBC NBC

The individuality of a fingerprint(is, isnt) determined by patterns.


The inheritable traits that are controlled by DNA arise out of DNA’s abillity to direct the production of
Type AB blood(is, isnt) agglutinated by both anti-a and antib serum
is not
A point-by-point comparison of fingerprint’s_____must be demonstrated in order to prove identity.
ridge characteristic
_____ are derived from a combination of up too twenty known amino acids
_____are a reproduction of friction skin ridge
What is the percentage of blood lost from the body that would cause death
The production of an amino acid is controlled by a sequence of___bases on the DNA molecule
The form and pattern of skin ridge are determined by the__________
dermal papillae
A person that is blod type B can receive what blood type in a transfusion?
t or f: Enzymes known as DNA polymerase assemble new DNA strands into a proper base sequence during replication.
Type B RBCs agglutinate when added to type(A, B) blood.
B-, O-
A permanent scar forms in the skin only when an injury damages the______
Dermal papillae
t or f: DNA can be copied outside a living cell
A person that is blood type B can recieve what blood type in a tranfusion
Fingerprints(can,can not)be changed during a person’s lifetime
can not
Recombinant DNA relies on the ability of chemicals known as ______enzymes to cut DNA into fragments
Type A RBCs agglutinate when added to type (AB, O) blood.
The three general patterns into which fingerprints are divided are____,_____, and______
whurls, archs, and loops
A person that is blood type A has what antibody is serum?
anti B
The most common fingerprint pattern is the ____
In RFLP DNA typing, restriction enzymes are used to cut out(repeating, random) sequences from the DNA molecule
Approximately 5% of the population has the____ fingerprint pattern
An immunological assay technique used to detect the presence of the minute quantities of drugs in blood and urine is ____ or ____.
A loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a ___ loop
In RFLP DNA typing, restriction enzymes are used to cut out sequences of DNA with different(widths, lengths)
What is the definition of agglutination
clumps together
The pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as _____
type lines
DNA fragmens can be sorted according to their size by the technique of ______
______reagent reacts with blood, causing it to luminesce
The ridge point nearest the typ-line divergence is know as the ______
In the RFLP DNA typing process, DNA fragments are transferred to a nylon membrane by a process called ____blotting
What are the 8 different blood types that a human could have
All loops must have ____delta
t or f:In the FRLP DNA typing process, a radioactively labeled probe is used to visualize the seperated DNA fragments
Blood can be characterized as being of human origin by the ______ test
The approximate center of a loop pattern is called____
the cure(spelling)
The probe complementary to the bases sequences TAG has the letter sequence ____
t or f: The shape of blood stains may provide useful information reguarding the direction, dropping distance, and angle of impact for spattered blood
If an imaginary line drawn between the two deltas or whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a_____
plain whorl
The basic unit of heredity is the
In RFLP DNA typing, a typical DNA pattern shows(two, three) bands.
The simplest of all fingerprint patterns in the _____
Plain arch
Genes are position on threadlike bodies called______
t or f: Specimens amendable to DNA typing are blood, semen body tissues, and hair
Arches(have, dont have) type lines, deltas, and crops
have no
all cells in the human body, except the reproductive cells have ___ pairs of chromosomes.
Short DNA segments containing repeating sequences of three to seven bases are called ___.
The presence or absence of the _____ is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system.
whorl pattern
The sex of an offspring is always determined by the (father, mother)
t or f: The longer the DNA strand, the less susceptible it is to degradation.
Genes that influence a given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair asr known as
A fingerprint classification system(can, can not) unequivocally identify an individual.
can not
The short length of STRs allows tem to be replaced by ____
A _____ is an observable characteristic of an individual
DNA fragments can be separated and identified by______
capillary electrophoresis
t or f: Computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcation and ridge endings.
The combination of genes present in the cells of an individual in called the_____
A fingerprint left by a person with soiled or stained fingerprints is called a
visible print
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from the (mother, father)
A gene(will, will not) appear in a child when it is present in one of the parents
________fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material
t or f: Mitochondrial DNA in more plentiful in the human cell than is nuclear DNA.
A type B individual may have the genotype___ or the genotype___
Fingerprints on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by the application of a_____
____regions of mitochondrial DNA have been found to be highly variable in human populations
Fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with _________ treatments
T or F: Polymerase chain reaction is a part of the process used in the forensic analysis of RFLP, STRs, and mitochondrial
______vapors chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint.
A type AB mother and the AB father will have offspring of what possible genotypes(combo)
The national DNA database in the US has standardized on _____ STRs for entry into the database
The Chemical_______visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acids.
A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible phenotypes
A, B, AB
Small amounts of Blood are best submitted to a crime laboratory in ____conditions
t or f: Airtight packages make the best containers for blood-containing evidence.
A typical STR DNA type emanating from a single indivdual shows a ____-band pattern.
A chemical technique known as ________is used to develope latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic.
Superglue Fuming