Foundations of chemistry

MOLAR MASS OF WATER
18 g/mol
MOLAR MASS OF CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
44 g/mol

MOLAR MASS OF CARBON MONIXIDE

(CO)

28 g/mol
LEWIS DOT OF WATER

 

O

H     H

 

LEWIS DOT FOR OXYGEN MOLECULE

 

O  O

LEWIS DOT FOR NITROGEN MOLECULE

(N2)

 

N   N

AVOGADROS’S NUMBER
6.02X1023 (molecules, atoms or particles)
DIATOMIC MOLECULES

;

;

Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2, F2

WHAT IS AN ISOTOPE?

ELEMENT WITH SAME ATOMIC NUMBER

BUT DIFFERENT ATOMIC MASS

OR

ELEMENT WITH SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS

BUT DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS

FORMULA OF METHANE
CH4
FORMULA OF PROPANE
C3H8
NUMBER OF BONDS IN CARBON

4

;

-C-

ELEMENT THAT FORMS SINGLE, DOUBLE AND TRIPLE BONDS

CARBON

;

C-C, C=C, C;C

ATOMIC NUMBER
IT IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS
ATOMIC MASS
IT IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS IN AN ATOM
HYDROCHLORIC ACID
HCl
SULFURIC ACID
H2SO4
NITRIC ACID
HNO3
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
H2O2
SODIUM HYDROXIDE
NaOH
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
Ca(OH)2
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF HYDROGEN
1S1
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF HELIUM
1S2
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION SEQUENCE

1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6

,4s2,3d10,4p6

FAMILY 1
ALKALI METALS
FAMILY 2
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
FAMILY 17
HALOGENS
FAMILY 18
NOBLE GASES
IONIC BOND
METAL WITH A NON-METAL
COVALENT BOND
NON-METAL WITH NON-METAL
SMALLEST ATOM
HYDROGEN
ATOM WITH GREATEST SIZE
FRANCIUM
ELEMENT WITH HIGHEST IONIZATION ENERGY
HELIUM
ELEMENT WITH HIGHEST ELECTRONGEGATIVITY
FLUORINE
FORMULA TO FIND NEUTRONS

ATOMIC MASS – ATOMIC NUMBER

;

CHARGE OF A PROTON
POSITIVE (+)
CHARGE OF AN ELECTRON
NEGATIVE (-)

HEAVIEST PART OF THE ATOM

OR DENSE PART OF THE ATOM

NUCLEUS
WHAT IS A CATION?
ELEMENT THAT LOSES ELECTRONS
WHAT IS AN ANION?
ELEMENT THAT GAINS ELECTRONS
WHICH ELEMENTS FORM CATIONS?
METALS
WHICH ELEMENTS FORM ANIONS?
NON-METALS
VALENCE ELECTRONS
ELECTRONS AVAILABLE FOR BONDING
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 1
ONE
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 2
TWO
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 13
THREE
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 14
FOUR
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 15
FIVE
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 16
SIX
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 17
SEVEN
NUMBER OF PERIODS, ENERGY LEVELS, ROWS
SEVEN
VALENCE ELECTRONS OF FAMILY 18
EIGHT
ALPHA PARTICLES

STOP WITH PAPER, SKIN.

2 He4

;

HYDROCHLORIC ACID
HCl
SULFURIC ACID
H2SO4
NITRIC ACID
HNO3
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
H2O2
SODIUM HYDROXIDE
NaOH
SULFATE
SO4 -2
NITRATE
NO3 -1
SULFITE
SO3 -2
NITRITE
NO2 -1
CYANIDE
CN -1
HYDROBROMIC ACID
HBr
MOLES TO GRAMS

MULTIPLY BY MOLAR MASS

MM


1 mol

GRAMS TO MOLES

DIVIDE BY MM

1mol


MM

MOLES TO (PARTICLES, MOLECULES OR ATOMS)

MULTIPLY BY 6.02X1023

6.02X1023 atoms


1 mol

(PARTICLES, ATOMS OR MOLECULES) TO MOLES

DIVIDE BY 6.02X1023

1 mol


6.02×1023

GRAMS TO (PARTICLES, ATOMS OR MOLECULES)

6.02X1023


;

MM

;

(PARTICLES, ATOMS OR MOLECULES) TO GRAMS

MM


6.02X1023

HOW IS THE PERIODIC TABLE ARRANGED?
BY INCREASING THE ATOMIC NUMBER
WHY DO ELEMENTS GIVE OR TAKE ELECTRONS
BECAUSE ALL ELEMENTS WANT TO BE LIKE A NOBLE GAS
SYNTHESIS REACTION
A + B ; AB
DECOMPOSITION REACTION
AB ; A+ B
SINGLE REPLACEMENT
A + BC ; AC + B
DOUBLE REPLACEMENT
AB + CD ; AD + CB
COMBUSTION
CXHY + O2 ; CO2 + H2O
IONIZATION ENERGY
ENERGY REQUIRED TO LOSE ONE ELECTRON
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
STRENGTH TO ATTRACT A PAIR OR ELECTRONS
ELEMENT WITH HIGHEST ELECTRONEGATIVITY
FLUORINE
ELEMENT WITH HIGHEST IONIZATION ENERGY
HELIUM
BETA PARTICLE

-1 e 0

;

;

CHLORIC ACID
HClO3
CHLOROUS ACID
HClO2
AMMONIA
NH3
AMMONIUM
NH4+
ACETIC ACID

CH3COOH

;

C2H4O2

ACETATE

CH3COO -1

;

OR

;

C2H3O2 -1

NEUTRAL ATOMS
IN A NEUTRAL ATOM THE NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS IS THE SAME
ELECTROLYTE
A SOLUTION THAT CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY

ORBITALS

AND THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ELECTRON PER ORBITAL

s2, p6, d10, f14
METALS

MOST OF THE ELEMENTS ON THE PERIODIC TABLE.

GIVE ELECTRONS.

CONDUCT ELECTRICITY

MOST OF THEM ARE SOLIDS

NON-METALS

RIGHT SIDE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

DO NOT CONDUCT ELECTRICITY

MOST OF THE GASES

METALLOIDS

ELEMENTS LOCATED BETWEEN THE METALS AND NON-METALS

SEMI-METALS

SEMI CONDUCTORS OF ELECTRICITY

ATOMIC SIZE

IONIC SIZE

ATOMIC RADIUS

IONIC RADIUS

DECREASES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT

;

INCREASES FROM TOP TO BOTTOM

IONIZATION ENERGY TREND

INCREASES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT

;

DECREASES FROM TOP TO BOTTOM

;

NOBLE GASES ARE INCLUDED

ELECTRONEGATIVITY

INCREASES FROM LEFT TO RIGHT

;

DECREASES FROM TOP TO BOTTOM

;

NOBLE GASES ARE NOT INCLUDED

NAMING COMPOUNDS WITH TRANSITION METALS

ALWAYS USE ROMAN NUMERALS

;

EX.

Fe 2+ iron (II)

Fe 3+ iron (III)

LEWIS DOT OF HELIUM

;

;

He

LEWIS DOT FOR NEON, ARGON, KRYPTON, RADON

;

;

Ne

x

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