GCSE Chemistry – C1

The early atmosphere of earth was formed of…
Gases that escaped from volcanoes.
We know the main gases were…
Water and CO2 because they are still produced by volcanoes.
Oxygen is…
One of the most reactive gases in the atmosphere.
Oxidation can be seen in…
Rusted metals and maintenance of fire.
Recent rocks contain iron oxide, older rocks iron is not oxidised. This proves…
Oxygen levels in the atmosphere have increased.
Nitrogen has…
Increased.
Carbon Dioxide has…
Decreased.
Oceans were formed by…
Water vapour in the atmosphere condensing and precipitating.
Carbon dioxide _______ into the oceans, causing…
Dissolved, the levels in the atmosphere to drop.
Early sea plants released…
Oxygen.
Evolution of life caused…
Major changes to the atmosphere.
The modern atmosphere contains 78%…
Nitrogen.
The modern atmosphere contains 21%…
Oxygen.
The modern atmosphere contains 0.03%…
Carbon dioxide.
Igneous rock is formed by…
Cooling magma or lava.
Sedimentary rock is formed by…
Layering sediments on the ocean floor.
Metamorphic rock is formed by…
Sedimentary rock coming under heat and pressure.
Igneous rock underground has…

And is Called…

Larger crystals.

Intrusive.

Igneous rock above ground has…

And is called…

Smaller crystals.

Extrusive.

Chalk and Limestone are…
Sedimentary.
Chalk and Limestone can turn into…
Marble.
Limestone, chalk and marble are made of…
CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate).
Atoms are made up of…
Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.
PH is the measure of…
Acidity or Alkalinity.
PH7 is…
Neutral.
PH1 is…
Strong Acid.
PH14 is
Strong Alkali.
A base is a compound that…
Can neutralise acid.
All bases are…
Metal compounds.
Soluble bases are called…
Alkalis.
Electrolysis is when…
A compound is split up using electrical energy.
Chlorine can be produced by electrolysis of…
Seawater.
The negative electrode is the…
Cathode.
The positive electrode is the…
Annode.
To test for hydrogen…
Lit splint in a test tube makes a pop.
To test for chlorine…
Damp indicator paper bleaches white.
To test for oxygen…
A glowing splint relights.
Crude oil is a mixture of many…
Hydrocarbons.
Crude oil can be broken into separate hydrocarbons by…
Fractional Distillation.
Most hydrocarbons in crude oil are…
Alkanes.
All alkanes have the formula…
CnH(2n+2)
All alkanes are…
Saturated.
Alkenes are hydrocarbons that have a…
Carbon-carbon double bond.
Cracking is a process that…
Breaks long chain alkanes into short chain alkanes and alkenes.
Alkenes are used to make…
Polymers.
A single alkene is called a…
Monomer.
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