GCSE EdExcel C1 Keywords

Atmosphere
The layer of gases that surrounds the Earth.
Sedimentary rock
The group of rocks produced by grains of rock being cemented and compacted together.
Limestone
A type of rock that is made up of calcium carbonate and is used for cement.
Photosynthesise
To produce food using sunlight, water and carbon dioxide in a plant.
Noble gases
A group of unreactive element gases found on the right hand side of the Periodic Table.
Trace
A very small amount.
Deforestation
The removal of trees from an area.
Magma
Molten rock.
Lava
The name for magma which has come to the surface of the Earth.
Solidifies
Becomes hard (solid).
Igneous rocks
The group of rocks created directly by cooling magma from inside the Earth.
Crystals
The name given to minerals with a special structure. They can sometimes be sort after and look nice.
Rate
How fast something happens.
Granite
A common type of igneous rock formed when magma cools slowly.
Chalk
A white powdery sedimentary rock.
Sediment
The small grains from weathered igneous rocks.
Fossil
The mineral imprint, usually of the hard parts of prehistoric plants and animals etc.
Metamorphic rocks
The group of rocks created from sedimentary rocks which have been put under great heat and pressure.
Marble
A metamorphic rock formed from limestone (or chalk).
Quarry
A large hole dug into the ground or a hillside to remove rocks.
Word Equations
Equations that are written using full words and not symbols.
Thermal decomposition
The break down of something due to heating.
Concrete
Cement mixed with sand and gravel.
Reactant
Something that is reacted with something else.
Products
The result of a reaction.
Atoms
The smallest part of an element, consisting of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Element
The most basic substances formed of one type of atom and found in the Periodic Table.
Compound
A substance formed from two or more elements bonded together.
Chemical formula
The way we write substance with symbols to show what they are made up of.
Balanced Equations
An equation which is equal on both sides of the equals sign.
State symbols
A symbol shown in brackets to show what state a substance is in when writing formulae.
Aqueous solutions
Substances dissolved in water.
Precipitation reactions
When solube substances react together to form an insoluble substance.
Soluble
Can be dissolved.
Insoluble
Can not be dissolved.
Precipitate
An insoluble product from the reaction of soluble substances.
Limewater
Another name for calcium hydroxide solution, used to test for carbon dioxide and make concrete.
Neutralisation reaction
A reaction where an acid and alkali neutralise each other.
Ratio
A mathematical word for a proportion.
Digested
Broken down into smaller molecules, particularly in the stomach.
Antacids
Medicines that neutralise stomach acid.
Bases
Substances that can react with acids (they are called alkalis when they can be and are dissolved in water).
Salt
An (ionic) compound formed from a neutralisation reaction.
Alkali
A base dissolved in water – the opposite of an acid.
pH Scale
The number scale used to measure how acidic or alkaline something is.
Indicator
Something used to show information about something else (e.g. how acidic something is).
Universal indicator
A solution that changes colour depending on the pH of the substance it is mixed with.
Litmus paper
Coloured paper used to test whether something is acid or alkali.
Hazardous
Something that is dangerous is not stored and used correctly.
Hazard symbols
A way of showing how dangerous something is using pictures.
Decomposed
When a substance is broken up.
Electrolysis
The way in which we can use electricity to break down (decompose) molecules.
Electrolytes
Compounds that can be decomposed (broken down) by electrolysis.
Ores
Metal compounds found in rocks.
Extraction
The process of getting a metal from out of a rock/ore.
Reactivity series
The order of how reactive substances are.
Reduction
When a metal from its oxide by heating with carbon.
Corrosion
When a metal changes by reacting with oxygen.
Rusting
The corrosion of iron in the presence of oxygen and water.
Oxidation
The addition of oxygen to a substance.
Recycled
Reusing something rather than throwing it away.
Conduct
Transfer (heat or electricity).
Malleable
Can be hammered into a shape.
Ductile
Can be stretched into wires.
Density
How much mass something has for its size.
Alloy
A metal mixed with small amount of other metals.
Alloy steels
Iron mixed with different amounts of other metals.
Carats
The measure of how pure gold is other than fineness.
Fineness
The measure of how pure gold is other than carats.
Smart material
A material that has a property that changes with a change in conditions.
Shape memory alloy
An alloy that returns to its original shape if it is deformed.
Crude oil
Oil in its unrefined state from the ground.
Fossil fuels
Coal, oil and gas.
Mixture
Two or more things combined but not chemically joined.
Hydrocarbon molecules
Molecules consisting of hydrogen and carbon, such as in oil.
Non-renewable resource
A resource which cannot be replace once it is used up.
Fractional distillation
The way in which we separate the fractions of crude oil by heating and using a special piece of equipment.
Fractions
The name for the simpler mixtures removed from a fractionating column.
Boiling points
The temperatures at which things poil.
Ignite
To set alight.
Viscosity
How thich something is.
Combustion
Burning – reacting something with oxygen (in air usually).
Complete combustion
When a hydrocarbon is completely reacted and only carbon dioxide and water remain as products.
Incomplete combustion
When a hydrocarbon is burnt without enough oxygen and carbon monoxide is a product.
Carbon monoxide
The result of incomplete combustion. A poisonous gas.
Soot
Solid carbon particles that result from combustion (burning).
Acid rain
Rain that is slightly acidic due to mixing with sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and/or nitrous oxides.
Biofuels
Fuels made from plants.
Ethanol
A biofuel made from wheat, sugar cane or sugar beet (an alcohol).
Biodiesel
A biofuel made from vegetable oils.
Renewable
Something that can be replaced once it has been used up.
Carbon neutral
Overall it does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Fuel cell
A device which can produce electrical energy without burning/combusting.
Alkanes
Hydrocarbon molecules with single bonds that follow the CnH2n+2 rule.
Bonds
The name for the join between atoms that make up molecules.
Saturated
When all the bonds are single bonds in a molecule.
Double bond
Where atoms in a molecule have more than one bond with each other.
Unsaturated
When there are double bonds in a molecule.
Alkenes
Hydrocarbon molecules with single and double bonds that follow the CnH2n rule.
Bromine test
The test used to check if a hydrocarbon is saturated or unsaturated.
Bromine water
The name for bromine dissolved in water.
Cracking
Using electricity to break up carbon chains into smaller ones.
Poly(ethene)
A polymer of ethene.
Polymer
Substances made up of thousands of simple repeating units.
Monomer
Substances whose molecules react together to form polymers.
Plastics
Manufactured polymers.
Polymerisation
The process of forming polymers from monomers (long chains from molecules).
Poly(propene)
The polymer of propene.
Poly(chloroethene) (PVC)
The full name of PVC, a common plastic.
Poly(tetrafluoroethene) (PTFE or Teflon)
The chemical name for Teflon.
Biodegradable
Can be broken down in nature.
Incinerated
Burnt until destroyed.
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out