GCSE EdExcel C2 Flashcards

Periodic table
The table in which all elements are found in an organised way.
Metals
A compound that is a good conductor of heat and electticity (found on the left of the Periodic table).
Non-metals
An element that is not a metal and is found to the right of the Periodic table.
Atoms
The smallest part of an element that can take part in nuclear reactions.
Nucleus
The centre of the atom consisting of protons and neutrons.
Protons
The positively charged sub-atomic particles found in the nucleus.
Neutrons
The particles in the nucleus with no charge.
Electrons
The sub-atomic particles with a negative charge that orbit the nucleus.
Shells
Another name for orbitals – the pathways of the electrons around the nucleus.
Energy levels
Another name for shells or orbitals, relating to the energy electrons have.
Relative mass
The mass of a particle relative to other particles.
Relative Charge
The charge of a particle relative to other particles.
Atomic number
The number of protons in an element.
Mass number
The number showing how much mass an element has.
Relative atomic mass
The mass of a compound, for example.
Mean
A form of average where we add the numbers up and divide by how many there are.
Periods
The rows on the Periodic table.
Groups
The columns on the Periodic table.
Isotopes
An atom with a different number of neutrons from the mean.
Relative abundance
This means “in comparison there are a lot more of these”
Electronic configuration
The pattern of the electrons in their shells.
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons to give it an overall charge.
Cations
An ion with a positive charge.
Anions
An ion with a negative charge.
Bonds
The name for the attraction between particles in a compound.
Ionic bonds
The type of bond that is caused by opposite charges.
Ionic compounds
A compound bonded due to ions of opposite charge.
Formula
A way of writing down a substance with symbols where it is made of two or more atoms.
Compound ions
Ions that contain one or more elements.
Lattice structure
The name of the structure that is caused by ionic bonding.
Molten
Melted to form a liquid.
Electrolysis
A process of splitting up compounds using electrical current.
Aqueous solution
When something is dissolved in water.
Melting point
The temperature at which something melts.
Boiling point
The temperature at which something boils.
Dissolves
When a solute splits up and mixes with a solvent.
Soluble
Able to be dissolved.
Insoluble
Not able to be dissolved.
Salt
A compound formed by the neutralisation of an acid and an alkali.
Precipitate
An insoluble solid formed when two solutions are mixed together during precipitation.
State symbols
The letters after an element in an equation, showing whether it is a solid, liquid, gas or in solution etc.
Precipitation reaction
A reaction between two solutions to form an insoluble solid.
Filtration
Separating larger molecules from smaller ones using a partially permeable membrane.
Barium meal
A drink containing barium sulphate.
Toxic
Poisonous.
Flame tests
A test to detect the ions in a substance by observing their colour in a Bunsen flame.
Spectroscopy
Analysis of the light from a particular source.
Covalent bonds
A bond formed by non-metal atoms held together by sharing electrons.
Molecule
More than one atom bonded together by covalent bonds.
Dot and cross diagram
A diagram used to model covalent bonding.
Double bond
The type of bond where two pairs of electrons are shared.
Simple molecular covalent substances
A few atoms held together by very strong covalent bonds.
Giant molecular covalent substances
Lots of non-metals atoms held together in lattices to form bigger structures.
Diamond
A very hard substance made from carbon atoms.
Graphite
A substance made from carbon that is arranged in layers.
Lubricant
Something that reduces friction between two objects.
Immiscible
Where liquids will not mix together completely.
Separating funnel
A piece of glassware used to separate two immiscible liquids.
Dissolve
What happens to a solute when placed in a solvent.
Solution
The result of a solute being dissolved in a solvent.
Miscible
If liquids can be mixed together to form another substance.
Fractional distillation
The process of separating fractions using a column and heat to separate by boiling point.
Fractionating column
A column used to separate fractions based upon their boiling points.
Fraction
A certain part of crude oil that comes out of a fractionating column at the same point.
Liquefied
Turned to liquid.
Chromatography
A process of separating mixtures to identify them (sometimes using paper and a solvent).
Solvent
Something which dissolves a solute.
Solubilities
How solube something is.
Chromatogram
The result of a chromatography test.
Rf value
A comparison value for points on a chromatogram
Elements
The most basic materials found in the Periodic table.
Malleable
Can be hammered into another shape without breaking.
Metallic bonds
The bonds formed between metal atoms.
Delocalised electrons
Electrons that can move away from the original nucleus.
Transition metals
Metals in the centre of the Periodic table.
Alkali metals
The metals found in group 1 of the Periodic table.
Reactivity
How readily something takes part in a chemical reaction.
Halogens
Group VII of the Periodic table.
Halides
A compound of which one part is a halogen.
Displacement reaction
A reaction where one reactant takes the place of another element in the compound it is reacted with.
Noble gases
The gases found in
Inert
Non-reactive.
Exothermic
Gives out heat during a reaction.
Endothermic
Takes in heat during a reaction.
Rate of a chemical reaction
How quickly a reaction happens.
Concentration
How much of a substance is present in a dilution.
Surface area
The total area of an object or chemical.
Relative atomic mass
The total mass of a compound.
Percentage by mass
The amount of an element as an amount of the total mass (as a percentage).
Yield
The amount of product from a reaction.
Theoretical yield
The amount of product we should have based on the equation for the reaction.
Actual yield
The amount of product we make when the reaction is carried out (not the theoretical amount).
Percentage yield
The percentage of how much desirable product we obtain from a reaction.
Percentage
How much of something as a fraction out of one hundred.
By-products
The products of a reaction that are not desired or intended.
Waste products
Undesirable products from a reaction that are not needed.
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