Gen Chem 2 Elements and Groups

What element has the isotope tritium?
Hydrogen
What are three ways hydrogen is prepared in a lab?
Metal + Acid, Metal + Water, Metal Hydride + Water
How is hydrogen produced industrially
Sythesis Gas (C + H20 -> H2 + CO

Catalytic Steam Reforming (CH4+H2O -> H2 + CO

What are the three types of hydrides?
Ionic metal hydrides, Covalent hydrides and Interstitial Hydrides
How does reactivity change in groups 1 and 2 on the periodic table?
Reactivity increases with atomic weight, or reactivity increases as you move down the group.
What two ways are Alkali Metals prepared? Briefly describe the processes.
Downs Cell Electrolysis
eg. 2NaCl -> 2 Na + Cl2

Redox
eg. Na(g) + KCl (l) -> K(g) + NaCl

In general, how do boiling point and melting point change in a group of the periodic table?
As atomic weight increases, boiling point and melting point both generally decrease. Or as you move down the periodic table boiling point and melting point generally decrease.
How does density change in a group of the periodic table?
Generally as atomic weight increases density increases, or as you move down the group density increases.
What element is used in batteries, depression meds and greases?
Lithium
What element is used in soap, salt, baking soda and nerve impulses?
Sodium
What are the three primary nutrients?
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium
Which two of the Alkali metals are most common in the crust?
Potassium and Sodium
Which two of the Alkaline Earth Metals are most common in the crust?
Magnesium and Calcium
What is used to produce Magnesium? Briefly describe the process.
Magnesium chloride is filtered out from seawater and is heated in the presence of lime to produce magnesium hydroxide, an insoluble solid. This solid is converted back to Magnesium chloride through a reaction with HCl. Finally magnesium chloride is converted to magnesium through electrolysis.
Which group is more soluble: Group 1 or Group 2?
Group 1
Do the elements of groups 1 and 2 produce acidic, basic or neutral oxides?
Basic
True or False, the elements of group 2 can be found in their elemental state in nature.
False, they are always found combined and must be converted to their elemental state.
How does ionic radii change in the periodic table?
Ionic radii decreases as you move right across a period and increases as you move down a group.
Which element is used in x-ray tubes and atomic weapons?
Beryllium
Which element is used in lightweight alloys, chlorophyll, and organic synthesis?
Magnesium
Which poisonous element is used in x-ray imaging?
Barium
Which element causes old watches to glow?
Radium
What is the chemical formula for limestone?
CaCO3
What is the chemical formula for lime?
CaO
What element is related to muscle contraction and blood clotting?
Calcium
Which group 13 element is one of the most common in the crust?
Alluminum
How is aluminum produced? Briefly describe the process.
Hall-Heroult process
Bauxite(Al2O3)and Cryolite (Na3AlF6) undergo electrolysis at high temperature to separate Al from oxygen. Molten Al produced. Oxygen is produced at the carbon anode producing CO2 and eventually destroys the electrode.
Which element is found in gemstones, implicated in Alzheimers and used in rocket fuel?
Aluminum
Which group 13 element is known for being a good reducing agent?
Aluminum
Which element is used in flame retardants, insecticides, and cosmetics?
Boron
Which group 14 element is one of the ten most common in the crust?
Silicon
Which element is found in sand, asbestos and quartz?
Silicon
How is silicon produced? Briefly describe the process.
Silicon Dioxide reacts with Carbon to form liquid silicon and carbon monoxide. The liquid silicon then reacts with chlorine gas because it is not pure enough. SiCl4 then reacts with magnesium to produce Magnesium chloride and solid silicon.
Which element is used in integrated circuits, glass and antifoaming agents?
Silicon
What is the name of group 15?
Pnictogens
Which group 15 elements produce acidic oxides and which produce basic oxides?
Acidic: N, P
Basic: Bi
Which group 15 element has oxidation states from +5 to -3?
Nitrogen
Which Pnictogen is known for its 3 allotropes? Describe the allotropes.
Phosphorus
White/Yellow – Toxic, waxy solid that burns in air
Red – Polymerized P4
Black – Most stable, complex polymeric structure
Which element is used in detergents, fertilizer, metal finishing and cheese?
Phosphorus
Which element is needed for plant growth and is found in amino acids?
Nitrogen
Which element is used in blood buffering, DNA, RNA, ATP and bone?
Phosphorus
What are the biological effects of Arsenic?
Trace amounts needed to inhibit enzymes.
What is the most common element in the crust?
Oxygen
What three things is oxygen found most present in?
Air, Water and Minerals
What process is used to isolate sulfur? briefly describe the process.
Frasch Process
Superheated H2O and air react with sulfur deposits.
Which element is used to perm or relax hair?
Sulfur – specifically breaking and remaking disulfide bonds
What is the name of the group 16 elements?
Chalcogens
Which element is needed to prevent muscular problems but in excess causes “blind staggers” in animals?
Selenium
What are two types of medicine that sulfur is used in?
Penicillin and Sulfa Drugs
Which two Calcogens are found in amino acids?
Oxygen and Sulfur
Which two Chalcogens are found in amino acids?
Oxygen and Sulfur
How does reactivity change in group 17 of the periodic table?
Reactivity decreases as you move down the group (or as atomic weight increases.)
Which element was first discovered in sponges?
Iodine
What is the most reactive element?
Fluorine
How are halogens prepared?
The oxidation of halides
eg. NaCl -> NaOH + Cl2
At STP in what state are each of the halides naturally found?
Gas: F, Cl
Liquid: Br
Solid: I
Which halide has oxidation states from -1 to +7 and is found in PVC and fireworks?
Chlorine
What is the main biological use of fluorine?
Tooth hardening
Which halogen is used in saline solution?
Chlorine
Which halogen is used in hydroperoxidase enzymes?
Bromine
Which element is concentrated in the thyroid?
Iodine
True or False, The Noble gases are found in high abundance.
False.
eg. Argon makes up roughly 1% of air by volume.
Which noble gas forms a few compounds despite having a filled valence shell?
Xenon
How was helium first discovered?
First discovered on the sun through the use of a spectroscope.
Which element is known for its orange-red light?
Neon
Which element is used in welding, light bulbs and metal production?
Argon
Match the noble gas with the meaning of its name.

1. He
2. Ne
3. Ar
4. Xe

A. Stranger
B. Light
C. Inactive
D. New

1. B.
2. D.
3. C.
4. A.
How is Radon formed?
Through radioactive decay.
Which groups make up the early transition metals? What are two characteristics of most early transition metals?
4-6

Oxophilic (found as oxides) and less stable (air sensitive)

Which groups make up the late transition metals and what are two characteristics of most late transition metals?
8-10

Thiophilic (found as sulfides)and More stable

What are the two common oxidation states of transition metals and what are some examples of elements in these states?
+2 and +3

Element (Charge)
Mn(2+), Fe (3+), Ni (2+)

What are two examples of transition metals with oxidation states +6 or higher?
Oxidation State – Element (Charge)
+6 – CrO4(2-)
+7 – MnO4 (-)
What are the three main steps of metal production?
1. Reduce metal to elemental form
2. Remove impurities
3. Alloy formation
Which elements are ferromagnetic?
Iron, Nickel and Cobalt
What is the difference between paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism?
Paramagnetism – unparied electrons cause it to become magnetic in the presence of a magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic – Permanent magnet
Diamagnetic – No unpaired electrons, not magnetic.
Under what condition do d-orbitals have different energy levels?
In the presence of a ligand. Distribution of energy depends on the shape.
What transition metal is used in pigments, lubricants, catalysts, corrosion inhibitors and fertilizer?
Molybdenum
What biological effect does Cromium have?
Cr(6+) is carcinogenic, but Cr(3+) is necessary for glucose regulation.
What element is found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes?
Iron
Which element is found in ferritins and ferredoxins?
Iron
Which element is found in plant and animal enzymes?
Manganese
Which element is found in vitamin B12?
Cobalt
Which transition metal is used as a bactericide?
Silver
Which element is found in proteins, used in iron regulation and used to carry oxygen?
Copper
In coordinate bonding, which component functions as a Lewis acid?
The metal cation functions as a Lewis acid. The ligand, with its electron pair, functions as a Lewis base.
If a coordination of a copper ion and ammonia involves 6 ammonia molecules, what is the coordination number?
The coordination is 6 because there are 6 ammonia ligands bonded (via coordinate covalent bond) to the Cu ion.
What is the process for creating ammonia called? Briefly describe the process.
Haber Process
Nitrogen gas reacts with Hydrogen gas to form ammonia.
What two acids combine to make aqua regina? What does aqua regina do?
Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid
Aqua regina makes noble water which dissolves the noble metals including silver and gold.
What are the 10 most abundant elements in the Crust (starting with most abundant)
1. Oxygen
2. Silicon
3. Aluminum
4. Iron
5. Calcium
6. Sodium
7. Magnesium
8. Potassium
9. Titanium
10. Hydrogen
x

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