Gen Chem Chapter 1 & 2: Atomic Structure & Periodic Table

Z, equals
atomic number–equals number of protons
A, equals
mass number–number of protons and neutrons
isotopes differ in the number of ______ so they have a different ____ ___
neutrons mass number
formula for angular momentum of an electron:
angular momentum = nh/2pi
equation for Energy of an electron
E = -Rh/n^2
equation for energy of a photon
E = hc/lamda
balmer
two
lyman
one
pauli exclusion principle:
no two electrons in a given atom can possess the same set of four quantum numbers
principle quantum number means
shell: 1,2,3…
equation for the maximum number of electrons in an energy level:
2n^2
azimuthal quantum number
angular momentum: subshells: s,p,d,f
magnetic quantum number stands for:
orbit, so for example: px, py, pz
hunds rule:
bus rule: orbitals fill sot hat there are a maximum half filled orbitals with parallel spins
paramagnetic
material has unpaired electrons
diamagnetic
material has NO unpaired electrons
periodic law:
chemical properties of elements are dependent upon their atomic numbers
representative elements:
A elements
non-representative elements
B elements:
transition elements have partly filled ______
d subshells
lanthanide and actinide series have partly filled _____
f subshells
noble gases also called…
inert gases
atomic radii increases across the periodic table:
left and down
ionization energy increases across the periodic table:
right and up
electronegativity increases across the periodic table:
right and up
electron affinity increases across the periodic table:
right and up
effective charge increases across the periodic table:
right and up
ionization energy:
energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
second ionization is always ____ than the first ionization energy
larger!
atomic radii trend is due to…
effective nuclear charge
ionization energy trend is due to the fact that
it is harder to remove an electron if it is closer and more tightly bound
electron affinity:
energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom— also the ease with which the atom can accept an electron
the stronger the attractive pull of the nucleus for electrons….
the greater the electron affinity will be
electron affinity of noble gases is…
about zero because they already possess a stable octet
electronegativity:
measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond
the greater the electronegativity of an atom the greater its attraction for…
bonding electrons
electronegativity is related to
ionization energies
categories of elements on periodic table:
1. metals 2. nonmetals 3. metalloids
metals have ____ melting points
high
metals have ___ densities
high
metals are shiny or dull?
shiny –except mercury
metals are malleable or brittle?
malleable
_____ is the largest, most metallic and least electronegative of all naturally occurring elements
cesium, Cs
are metals ductile?
yes
ductility:
ability to be drawn into wires
characteristics of metals:
____ atomic radius
____ ionization energy
____ electronegativity
large, low, low—- because the few electrons in the valence shell of a metal can easily be removed
are metals good conductors?
yes–of heat and electricity
most reactive metals are where on the periodic table?
Group IA and IIA
most electronegative element?
flourine F, largest electron affinity
are nonmentals malleable or brittle?
brittle
are nonmetals shiny or dull
dull
characteristics of nonmetals:
____ ionization energies
_____ electronegativities
high, high
are nonmetals good conductors?
no-of neither heat nor electricity
can nonmetals gain electrons easily?
yes
_____ can explain all periodic trends as well as chemical properties
effective nuclear charge
properties of metalloids:
vary considerably— densities, bp and mp fluctuate widely
metalloids have characteristics of
both metals and nonmetals mixed— very dependent on element
characteristics of metalloids depends greatly on
what element they are being reacted with
elements that are metalloids:
boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te)
Group IA:
Alkali metals
alkali metals have densities ____ than of other metals
lower
alkali metals are highly reactive because they have
low ionization energies and easily lose their valence electron
Group IIA:
alkaline earth metals
removing electrons from alkaline earth metals produces:
divalent cations
halogens have _____ physical properties
varying: gas to liquid to solid
halogens react well with
alkali metals and alkaline earth metals because they want to donate electrons to the halogens
halogen + alkali metal or alkaline earth metal =
stable ionic crystals
Group VIII
noble gases
noble gases are
fairly nonreactive because of complete valence shell
noble gas characteristics:
____ boiling points
low
Group IB-VIIIB
transition metals!
characteristics of transition metals:
____ melting points
____ boiling points
transition metals can exist in a variety of positively charged forms called
oxidation states
the formation of complexes by the transition metals causes the orbitals to
split into two energy sublevels
rule for filling orbitals:
(n+ l) of each orbital and then see whatever one is a lower number— fill that one first

so 4s vs. 3d
4 + 0 = 4 and 3 + 2 =5 so fill 4s first

if the (n + l) rule results in a tie fill orbital with
lower n value first
s
o
p
1
d
2
f
3
nucleon:
number of protons + number of neutrons
atomic mass is a
weighted average of all isotopes
exceptional stability:
fully filled and half filled subshells
effective nuclear charge:
attractive, positive charge of the nucleus perceived by a valence electron
cations are always
SMALLER
O has a lower ionization energy than N because
N is already half filled, removing one from O gives a half filled
electron affinity is a ___ number so energy is ____ when an electron is added
negative, released
noble gases and half filled orbitals will have a ____ delta E relating to electron affinity because
positive, it doesn’t want electrons
plancks quantum theory:
energy emitted as electromagnetic radiation from matter exists in discrete bundles called quanta
heisenberg uncertainty principle
impossible to know the momentum and position of an electron at the same time
x

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