Gen. Chem. Chapter 3

Ionic Bond
a chemical bond formed between two oppositely charged ions, generally a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion, that are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces
Covalent Bond
a chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons that interact with the nuclei of both atoms, lowering the potential energy of each through electrostatic interactions 
Chemical Formula
a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction; a balanced equation contains equal numbers of the atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
Empirical Formula
a chemical formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in the compound
Molecular Formula
a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound
Structural Formula
a molecular formula that shows how the atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other
Ball-and-Stick Model
a representation of the arrangement of atoms in a molecule that shows how the atoms are bonded to each other and the overall shape of the molecule
Space-Filling Molecular Model
a representation of a molecule that shows how the atoms fill the space between them
Atomic Element
those elements that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
Molecular Element
those elements that exist in nature with diatomic or polyatomic molecules as their basic unit
Molecular Compound
compounds composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmetals
Ionic Compound
a compound composed of cations and anions bound together by electrostatic attraction
Formula Unit
the smallest, electrically neutral collection of ions in an ionic compound
Polyatomic Ion
an ion composed of two or more atoms
Common Name

a traditional name of a compound that gives little or no information about its chemical structure; for example, the common name of HaHCO3  

is “baking soda”

Systematic Name
an official name for a compound, based of well-established rules, that can be determined by examining its chemical structure
Binary Compound
a compound that contains only two different elements
Oxyanion
a polyatomic anion containing a nonmetal covalently bonded to one or more oxygen atoms
Hydrate
an ionic compound that contains a specific number of water molecules associated with each formula unit
Acid

a molecular compound that is able to donate an H

ion (proton) when dissolved in water, thereby increasing the relative strengths of weak acids

Binary Acid
an acid composed of hydrogen and a nonmetal
Oxyacid
an acid composed of hydrogen and an oxyanion
Formula Mass
the average mass of a molecule of a compound in amu

Mass Percent Composition

(mass percent)

an element’s percentage of the total mass of a compound containing the element
Empirical Formula Molar Mass
the sum of the masses of all the atoms in an empirical formula
Combustion Analysis
a method of obtaining empirical formulas for unknown compounds, especially those containing carbon and hydrogen, by burning a sample of the compound in pure oxygen and analyzing the products of the combustion reaction
Chemical Reaction
a process by which one or more substances are converted to one or more different substances
Combustion Reaction
a type of chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen to form one or more oxygen-containing compounds; the reaction often causes the evolution of heat and light in the form of a flame
Chemical Equation
a symbolic representation of a compound which indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms of each
Reactants
the starting substances of a chemical reaction; they appear on the left-hand side of a chemical equation
Products
the substance produced in a chemical reaction; they appear on the right-hand side of a chemical equation
Balanced Chemical Equation
a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction; a balanced equation contains equal numbers of the atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
Hydrocarbon
an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
Alkane
a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds
Alkene
a hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
Alkyne
a hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds
Functional Group
a characteristic atom or group of atoms that imparts certain chemical properties to an organic compound
Alcohol
a member of the family of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl functional group
Family
a group of organic compounds with the same functional group
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