Gen Chem Chapter 9: Solutions

solute in
solvent
when water is the solvent
hydration into an aqueous solution
solubility: all salts of alkali metals are:
soluble
solubility: all salts of ammonium ion are
soluble
solubility: all chlorides, bromides, and iodides are
soluble ==exceptions with ag, pb and hg2
solubility: all salts of sulfate ion are
soluble==exceptions with ca, sr, ba, pb
solubility: all metal oxides are
insoluble==exceptions alkali metals and CaO, SrO, and BaO
solubility: all hydroxides are
insoluble===exceptions: alkali metals and Ca, Sr, Ba
solubility: all carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, and sulfites are
insoluble== exceptions: alkali metals and ammoniu,
most things that are insoluble can become soluble if they are mixed with things that
are always soluble
solubility: all nitrates are
soluble
more oxygen
ate
less oxygen
ite
electroytes ____ in solution
ionize
electrolytes have a ___ effect on colligative properties
larger
solutes whose solutions are conductive are called
electrolytes
strong electrolyte:
dissociates completely
molarity
mols/L solution
molality
mols solute/kg solvent
normality:
gram eq weight of solute/ L of solution
Qsp > Ksp
precipitation will occur
Qsp < Ksp
dissolution can continue
Qsp = Ksp
solution is at equilibrium
common ion effect
example of le chatliers principle
IP > Ksp
supersaturated
IP < Ksp
unsaturated
IP = Ksp
saturated at equilibrium
molar solubility:
X: molar concentration or molarity of a solute in a saturated solution
molar solubility of 2 ions
x^2
molar solubility of 3 ions
4x^3
molar solubility of 4 ions
27x^4
x

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