General Chemistry 2

Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can be converted, but neither created nor destroyed
Potential energy
energy due to position or composition
Kinetic energy (KE = (1/2)m(v^2)
or “translational energy”
energy due to motion, depends on mass of the object and its velocity
pathway
specific conditions of energy transfer (dictates the division of work and heat)
State Function
a property of the system that depends only on it’s present state. (INDEPENDENT of past/future and pathway
Examples of state function
Energy. Enthalpy. Pressure. Volume.
(Heat and Work are NOT state functions)
system
part of the universe we are focusing on
surroundings
everything other than the system
exothermic
energy flows OUT of system. dH is negative.
endothermic
energy flows INTO system. dH is positive.
Thermodynamics
study of energy and its interconversions
First law of thermodynamics
Energy of the universe is constant.(same as law of conservation of energy)
change in system’s internal energy = q + w
work
force applied over a given distance
w = -P * (delta)V
Enthalpy
H = E + PV
at constant P, dH = q = “heat of reaction”
Heat capacity
energy required to raise temp of a substance (specify quantity, mole, gram, etc) by 1 degree K
Standard enthalpy of formation
change in enthalpy that accompanies formation of 1 mole of substance from its elements with all substances in their standard states
(Standard enthalpy of formation for an element in its standard state = 0)
Spontaneous process
occurs without outside intervention. NEGATIVE dG. (higher dS and lower dH)
Change in Entropy (delta.S)
a measure of the driving force behind the proces. Entropy = disorder.
Entropy and probability
nature spontaneously proceeds (drives) towards states that have the highest probabilities of existing
Probability (and Positional probability)
depends on number of microstates (configurations for a particular arrangement (different ways that the arrangement can occur))
positional: relates to positional microstates of particles in space
Isothermal process
Temperature is constant. (delta)E = 0 because energy of ideal gas only changes if temp changes. so q = -w.
System connect to a heat sink.
Definition of Entropy
S = Kb*ln(#microstates corresponding to given state)
delta.S = Qrev/T
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In any spontaneous process, there is an increase in entropy of the universe.
Electrolytic cell
uses electrical energy to produce chemical change
Electrolysis
involves forcing current thru a cell to produce a chemical change for which the cell potential is negative (electrical work causes an otherwise nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur)
anode
electrode where oxidation occurs
cathode
electrode where reduction occurs
galvanic cell
device in which chemical energy is changed to electrical energy (opposite of electrolysis process)
cell potential
electromotive force = pull, driving force (in volts)
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