General Chemistry

Complex Ion with a CN of 4
Tetrahedral or Square Planar
Complex Ion with CN of 6
Octahedral
Complex Ion with a CN of 2
Linear.
Requires sp hybridization.
Ligand
Lewis Base
Metal ion-ligand interaction
Lewis acid-base interaction. The ligand donates a lone pair of electrons to an empty orbital on the metal ion to form a coordinate covalent bond.
Low spin
Yeilds the minimum number of unpaired electrons (fills up the t2g orbitals before jumping to the eg orbitals) as a result of a large delta-o. aka strong-field case.
High-spin case
Yeilds the maximum number of unpaired electrons (puts an electron in all orbitals before pairing any) as a result of a small delta-o. aka weak-field case.
Delta-o is less than the energy needed to pair electrons so they stay unpaired as long as possible.
Spectrochemical series
Goes from small delta-o to large delta-o, therefore high spin to low spin. The ligands are arranged in order of increasing delta-o values, or their ability to produce d-orbital splitting.

I- < Br- < Cl- < F- < OH- < H2O < NH3 < en < CN-

3d M +2 compounds are ___ spin
High spin
3m M +3 compounds are ___ spin
high spin for delta-o < H20 or NH3 and low spin for higher delta-o
4d/5d compounds are ___ spin
low spin
What is a complex?
Positive polyatomic ion.
Polar-covalent bond between a transition metal (Lewis Acid) and a ligand (Lewis Base).
Tetrahedral
d0 metals, ligands that form double bonds, and larger ligands.
sp3 hybridization is required.
Always produce high spin.
Octahedral
is most common for all transition metals
Square planar
most common for d8 metals.
dsp2 hybridization is required.
Geometric isomer
Same formula, different ligand arrangement around the metal atom. Type of stereoisomerism. Same bonds, just different spatial arrangements.
Have different physical and chemical properties.
How do transition metals get their color?
Comes from the absorption of some visible frequencies to provide energy for moving electrons between “d-like” MOs. delta-o = 12-30 k/cm
What is the trend for delta-o for metals?
delta-o increases down columns and with increasing oxidation state
What is the trend for delta-o for ligands?
delta-o increases from strong acids like I-, Br- to H2O, NH3 and then ends with CN-, aka the spectrochemical series
t2g set
dxz, dyz, dxy orbitals are nonbonding orbitals. Those which lobes point “in between” the point charges and are thus lower in energy in the octahedral complex than dz^2 and dx^2-y^2. This is the splitting of the d-like MOs that explains the color and magnetism of complex ions for 3d TMs. The splitting leads to delta-o which then determines if it is high spin or low spin.
How do the TMs get their color and magnetism?
The splitting of the d-like MOs that explains the color and magnetism of complex ions for 3d TMs. The splitting leads to delta-o which then determines if it is high spin or low spin.
TM (Lewis Acid) plus a LIGAND (Lewis Base) is a
Coordination Compound or Complex, a polar covalent bond in direction M+—L-
eg set
dz^2, dx^2-y^2 point at the ligands and therefore are bonding and anti-boings sigma MOs.
neutral transition metal + organic ligand =
H2O insoluble
Magnetism is determined by
the energy needed to pair 2 electrons in the same orbital. Both high-spin and low-spin are possible for d4-7 metals.
Transition metals in the body serve 3 different functions.
1-electron carriers (>1 oxidation state)
2-oxygen carriers (>1 coordination number)
3-catalysts/enzymes (organisms must be carried out near STP, can’t have too much variation in delta-H)
Which transition metals are the most abundant?
3d are >> than 4d or 5d. Fe is the most abundant 3d element and is used most biologically while Mo is the most abundant 4d/5d.
carbohydrate + O2 —>
CO2 + H2O
Brackets [ ] indicate atoms are
within the covalently-bonded silicate network. Other atoms outside the brackets are ions there to balance the silicate charge.
C forms single bonds with ___. With all bonds single, it is ___ hybridized, a ___ in shape
C, H, N, O, S, Cl; sp3; tetrahedral
C forms double bonds with ___, is ___ hybridized, and ___ in shape
C, N, O, S; sp2, trigonal planar
C forms triple bonds with ___, is ___ hybridized, and ___ in shape
C, N; sp; linear
Which carbon bonds are reactive?
carbon double and triple bonds. C-C bonds and C-H bonds are unreactive
Alkanes
saturated hydocarbons; only form single bonds.
Carbon will always be sp3, tetrahedral, so NO alkane is planar.
Unreactive at STP.
Will chlorinate or oxidize at high temp.
Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons; have a C=C double bond.
More reactive as it is electron rich.
Trigonal planar, sp2.
If has different groups attached, geometric isomer.
Alcohols (ROH)
good solvents for polar and nonpolar molecules.
High bp and water solubility (polarity, h bonding).
Liquids up to C12.
With strong reductants and bases, act like H2O.
With acids, substitution.
Aldehydes (RCH=O) and Ketones (R2C=O)
water-soluble
lengthen C chain, important for building up large molecules
Carboxilic Acid (RC(=O)OH)
weak acids in water
high bp (high polarity, h bond)
can convert to esters (RCo2R’) or amides (RCONHR’)
Amines (RNH2, R2NH)
weak acids in water
lower bp than O compounds
Amino Acids [RCH9(NH2)Co2H]
high melting point as solids
conduct electricity as liquids
high dipole moments
not acidic or basic in water
polymerize to give proteins by elimination of H2O, forming a peptide (amide) bond
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