
(average value – true value) ————————— x 100% true value 


(standard deviation) ——————— x 100% mean(not S.D.’s mean) 


(Value 1 – Value 2) ——————— x 100%  Avg. of values  

standard deviation (excel) 

formulas > more functions > statistical > stdev.s 

measurements related to systematic error 

absolute error and percent error 

measurements related to random error 

standard deviation and coefficient of variation 

measurements related to accuracy 

absolute error and percent error 

measurements related to precision 

standard deviation and coefficient of variation 


closeness of measured value to the true value, correctness 


closeness of measured values to each other, reproducibility 

calculate moles of a substance given grams 

# grams / molecular mass of compound 

calculate grams of substance given moles 

multiply # moles by molecular mass of compound 

calculation for concentration 

molarity, n (mols of substance) / volume of substance in liters or PPM 

calculate parts per million (PPM) 

mass of substance in Mg / volume in liters 




one amp = one coulomb of charge per second 


1.602 x 10 ^ 19 coulombs 

40 amp circuit how many coulombs per second? 


to find the total charge passed through a circuit 

multiply time (in seconds) by # of amps passed through 

to find # of electrons passed through a circuit 

multiply # coulombs by the charge of an electron (750C x [1/1.602×10^19]) 

how to type 3.09 x 10^19 into excel 





actual yield / theoretical yield x 100% 


– C calorimeter X Temperature change 

Delta H mol (enthalpy change per mol of fuel burned) 

Q rxn / n burned (mols fuel burned) 

Delta H G (enthalpy change per gram of fuel burned) 

1) delta H mol / molecular mass of fuel 2) Q rxn / mass burned 

how to calculate energy of one photon 



plancks constant, 6.626×10^34 joules per second 


speed of light, 2.9979×10^8 meters per second 


wavelength in nanometers (must be converted to meters in energy equation) 

how to convert from nanometers to meters 

multiply the nanometers by (10^9) 


moles of substance / volume in liters 


mass of substance in mg / volume in liters 

molarity dilution calculation 




bond angle for trigonal planar 


bond angle for tetrahedral 


bond angle for trigonal bypyramidal 


bond angle for octahedral 


bond angle for 2 groups of electrons 


bond angle for 3 groups of electrons 


bond angle for 4 groups of electrons 


define hydrocarbons vapor pressure and solubility 

high vapor pressure, insoluble 

define esters vapor pressure and solubility 

high vapor pressure, high to moderate solubility 

define alcohols vapor pressure and solubility 

low vapor pressure, high to moderate solubility 

molecular mass equation for chapter 8 

(Mgas)(R = .0821)(Tbath)/(ambient pressure in atm)(Vbottle volume of gas) 


Mincrease (avg) + M correction 

equation to find M correction 

(MM air 29g/mol)(Sample VP atm)(Vbottle in L)/(.0821)(room temp kelvin) 

how to determine formula of ester or alcohol 

divide its molecular mass by 15, round to nearest whole number, for esters 2 of these numbers will be O atoms, for alcohols one will be an O atom 

typical vapor pressure of ester and hydrocarbon 


typical vapor pressure of alcohol 

