Hallucinogens

the word hallucinogen comes from the Latin word __
alucinere, meaning to wander in mind, talk idly, or prate
DSM5 defines a hallucinogen as a
sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ
-distortions of sensory information, some drugs cause mental confusion or delirium
other terms for hallucinogens
psychedelics, illusinogens, and deliriants
how many plants capable of producing hallucinogenic or deliriant effects
600
hallucinogens comprise a very chemically
heterogenous class of drugs
fourfold categorization comprised of what
3 categories based on neurotransmitter characterizations and the fourth being in a miscellaneous group
4 categories are
1. cholinergic hallucinogens
2. serotonergic hallucinogens (eg. LSD)
3. methylated amphetamines (eg. MDMA, ecstasy)
4. other hallucinogens
another word for methylated amphetamines
noradrenergic hallucinogens
humans were quick to discover that ingestion of these plants could produce what
-what acting in the cholinergic nervous system produces psychoactive effects
a delirium like state, or be used as poisons
-drugs acting as agonists AND antagonists
cholinergic agonist hallucinogens

cholinergic nervous system importantly involved in

2 types of cholinergic agonist hallucinogens

these drugs stimulate primarily muscarinic cholinergic receptors, producing greater than normal neural activity in the cholinergic nervous system

many life sustaining physiological functions and learning&memory

amanita muscaria, ibogaine

amanita muscaria
-fly agaric mushroom
-mushrooms have a bright red cap, speckled with white dots, similar to the ones in the Disney film Fantasia
-not a typical drug choice today
Vikings called “beserkers” because
ingestion of the mushroom produces a state of “agitated raving” and feelings of invincibility, evidence that Vikings would consumer this before raiding a village
amanita contains what psychoactive substance (2)

these substances are excreted where

ibotenic acid* (which is metabolized to muscazone) and muscimole

excreted in urine largley unchanged and an active dose may be had by ingesting the urine of someone who ingested the mushroom

symptoms of cholinergic activation from amanita include
-initial period of good humour and light euphoria
-feelings of detachment and unreality
-feelings of increased power
-agitated raving
-twitching and trembling of limbs
-visions of the supernatural and illusions of grandeur
-marked lacrimation (tearing)
-salivation and sweating
-pinpoint pupils (shrink up)
-severe stomach pain, and painful diarrhea, coma, convulsions, and potentially death
ibogaine
-plant found in Gabon in central Africa, Gabonese hunters chewed the yellowish root of the plant
-mainly acts as a stimulant allowing the hunters to endure long treks and searches for food
main psychoactive compound in ibogaine
ibotenic acid
ibogaine was sold when/where/why

is ibogaine legal in canada

in the 1960s in France as an over the counter medication for fatigue

yes!

some people found that of enough pills were taken they could experience a type of mystical or meditative effect during which what they identified as
therapeutic, repressed childhood memories were unlocked, users felt that these experiences fave them great insight in themselves
ibogaine gained a reputation among what users
heroin users as useful if they were trying to quit
there are drug treatment centers in Canada that do what, ex.
incorporate ibogaine in a treatment plan
-Toronto Ibogaine Treatment Center
cholinergic antagonist hallucinogens

4 types

some substances block muscarinic cholinergic receptors and in doing so produce a set of effects that justify their classification as deliriants or hallucinogens
-common in pesticides

-atropa belladonna
-datura stramonium
-henbane
-mandragora officinarum

atropa belladonna

main ingredient

atropine is an alkaloid of atropa belladonna, known as a deadly nightshade or love apples, b/c it was thought to be an aphrodisiac (drug that stimulates sexual desire)

main ingredient is atropine

atropa plant is found mainly where, and is a member of what family, produces what kind of flowers
mainly Europe, North Africa, Asia
member of the tomato/potato family
produces bell shaped purplish flowers tinged with green and has soft blue/black berries
name atropa belladonna was given to reflect 2 common uses of the plant
-atropos eldest of the 3 fates in greek mythology, and it was her duty to cut the thread of life for a person’s death (thus atropa reflects the use of atropine as a poison)

-belladonna comes from when women would instill the juice of nightshade berries in their eyes to dilate them, which was considered to be more beautiful

physiological effects of atropine
dilated pupils
feeling of suffocating
husky voice
at low doses
drug produces an initial increase in general arousal
at slightly higher doses
sedative effects begin to appear, dream like state where user experiences pleasing hallucinations, vivid and erotic dreams, and a sense of weightlessness (sensation of flying)
upon awakening
user may exhibit amnesia (has difficult time realizing dreams and hallucinations were not real)
at even higher doses
phase of pleasantness is replaced with more powerful and frightening images, potentially lethal
-very fine line btwn pleasant experience and lethal one, so repeated recreational use very uncommon
datura stramonium
3 other common names
atropine and other cholinergic blockers, scopolamine and hyoscyamine, are found in Datura stramonium, known as jimsonweed, jamestown weed, thorn apple
datura history of use
in colonial america women who claimed to witches would rub ointments made from Datura on sticks and then straddle them for feeling of weightlessness and a sensation of flying
-drug would be absorbed via the vaginal membranes producing a claim that they were flying
datura has been and continues to be used for what
to fortify marijuana in the far east and india
today in these regions (Far East and India), whats happened
cigarettes are made from the leaves of Datura and Atropa and smoked to produce an intoxicating effect
until 1970s, these cigarettes were sold in pharmacies in both Canada and the US for
the treatment of asthma b/c of the bronchodilating effects of atropine
ingestion of datura produces same effects as those of
atropa
Jimsonweed is cultivated today for what

how many seeds for a low to moderate dose, how many for hallucinations

decoration
-has purple trumpet like flowers, large, jagged leaves, and thorny fruit pods that produce seeds each fall

10-20 for low to moderate dose
50 for hallucinations/death

henbane
-contains scopaline and hyoscyamine
-called hyoscyamus niger
-yellowish flowers and hairy leaves
mandragora officinarum
mandrake (meaning “potent male”) plant contains atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine
history, myth
a hanged man would have an erection and ejaculation caused by the sudden snapping of the neck sending an impulse down the spinal cord, plant grew wherever a hanged man’s semen fell to the ground
-myth also has it that the plant shrieks when uprooted, driving mad anyone who hears it
at low doses
at higher doses
its used as a sedative hypnotic type of drug
at higher doses, it produces hallucinations and delirium
the drug most identified with the term “hallucinogen” is the prime example of a
serotonergic hallucinogen
serotonergic hallucinogens often used in what
migraine medications
LSD, chemical name and trade name
first synthesized when and by who

important symptom in LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide, trade name Delysid
first synthesized in 1938 by the Swiss chemist Albert Hoffman who was studying derivatives of the ergot fungus for their vasoconstrictive action and ability to give muscle tone to the uterus

-LSD one of the most potent drugs around
-important symptom is synthesia

lysergic acid amide is an alkaloid obtained from
ergot, a parasitic fungus found on a variety of grains (eg. rye and wheat)
Hoffman was not attempting to produce an hallucinogenic drug, but it turned out that what

his research also produced

the 25th derivative/modification that he produced had strong hallucinogenic properties (hence the name LSD-25)

a number of compound with therapeutic usefulness (eg. Methergine), drug used to treat migraines

did this happen on purpose or by accident, what year

next day what happened

1943 Hoffman accidentally dosed himself with LSD by getting a sample on his hands, recorded a detailed picture when he started experiencing effects

he intentionally ingested 250 micrograms to study the drug’s effect

250 micrograms
5 times larger than the minimal psychoactive dose
-minimal dose is about the size of a grain of salt
Dr. Humphrey Osmond
coined the term “psychedelic”
govn’t agencies in the US
were interested if LSD would be useful as an aid in interrogations, but concluded that it was too unreliable to use
Dr. Timothy Leary
-godfather of LSD
-started freely distributing the drug and told people to “turn on” to acid
LSD used in psychotherapy when and why
during 1950s and 1960s, rationale being that while under the influence of the drug the user would more openly communicate about inner feeling and also be more open to therapeutic suggestions
LSD legal in the US until when
1966
in 1966 what happened to LSD
it was made a schedule I drug in the US (no medical use and high abuse potential)
use of LSD peaked when
late 1960’s to early 1970’s
from 1967-1971 the % of college students reporting at least one lifetime use of LSD rose from
1%-20%
-however use has declined since that time
canadians aged 15 or older reported lifetime use for hallucinogens of about what % and past year use at what %
lifetime use at 12%, past year use at 1%
among university Canadian students, past year use at what %
6%
since 1995,
steady decline since the peak in 1995
LSD characteristics
odorless, tasteless, colorless, and fairly easily crosses both the blood brain barrier and the placental barrier
how is LSD typically taken
orally as a tablet (eg. orange barrel, purple haze), gelatin capsule (commonly called window pane), or on absorbent paper (commonly called blotter acid)
oral ingestion peak concentration how long, duration of effects
90 minutes peak concentrations
5-12 hrs duration of effects
first symptoms of LSD
activation of the sympathetic nervous system: dilated pupils (good index of the hallucinogenic effect), increased body temperature and blood pressure, analgesia (inability to feel pain)
after 1-2 hours of ingestion

major symptoms (8)

-hallucinogenic effects –primary visual and often experienced with the eyes closed

-one of the first effects is wave like and rhythmic movement in objects (that are not actually moving)
-object trails
-when eyes are closed there appear images of latticework, spirals, funnels, cobweb figures (called form constants, occurs frequently)
-synesthesia: perception of one sense in another sense modality (eg. users seeing sounds, can see vividly coloured musical notes while listening to music)
-distortions in perception, small periods of time seem to be very long
-ego disintegration (difficult to distinguish himself from the surroundings), effect may be partially due to the anagesic effects of the drug. One use described the effects as if their whole body had been injected with novocaine, and it was like touching your jaw at the dentist
-bad trips –potential adverse effect, common in novice users, fear that effect is permanent (3%)
-flashbacks: unexpected psychedelic experiences long after the most recent use of LSD, typically short lived, self terminating, and not distressing

HPPD, hallucinogen persisting perception disorder
more long lasting, distressing, recurrent, and only slowly reversible psychedelic experiences occurring well after the last drug use (4% of users)
-recognized diagnosable condition in DSM 5
LSD fatality rate
LD50 is 14 000 micrograms which is approx 300 times the minimal psychoactive dose estimated at 50 micrograms, very difficult to OD
does tolerance occur
tolerance occurs to most of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD in 3-4 days
-tolerance also occurs to other serotonergic hallucinogens (cross tolerance across these hallucinogens)
-if tolerance has developed to LSD there will be tolerance to psilocybin or mescaline
what also contributes to the development of tolerance to LSD
Pavlovian conditioning
is there evidence of physical dependence
no
does LSD cause harmful effects in babies
LSD does not cause chromosomal damage (brain damage)
has research supported an LSD model of schizophrenia
no
in schizophrenia there are true hallucinations experienced with eyes opened, in LSD produces perceptual distortions with eyes closed
early research suggested that LSD suppressed firing of
(Rechs and Rosecrans)
serotonin neurons in the raphe nuclei by acting as an agonist at presynaptic 5-HT1 receptors which serve a negative feedback regulatory function on serotonergic activity
the raphe nuclei are part of what is called the
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) which is involved in the filtering of sensory information, and thus the hypothesis was that LSD interfered with this filtering leading to sensory distortions
some research contradicted this explanation and a consensus grew that LSD produced its effects how
mainly via an agonistic action at postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors
blocking 5-HT2 receptors does what
antagonizes the hallucinogenic effects of LSD
although it is believed that agonism at 5-HT2 receptors is critically involved in LSD’s hallucinogenic effects there is new evidence that
the original mechanism of agonism at 5-HT1 receptors suppressing raphe activity is relevant
lysergic acid amide
less potent, naturally occurring form of hallucinogen related to LSD
-found in ergot, a fungus present on morning glory seeds
-looks like rooster legs
these naturally occurring sources of lysergic acid played a role in
the salem witch trials
-witch trials took place in fall of 1691 following a warm, rainy spring and summer that would have been favourable to an ergot infestation
“Holyfire” or “St. Anthony’s fire” may have resulted from
the strong vasoconstrictive action of lysergic amide that had been baked into bread made from infected grains
-the restriction blood flow to the limbs caused by the vasoconstriction leads to a sensation of warmth (hence the fire), tingly sensation also a symptom
ergotism, when and where
afflicted behaviour caused by ingestion of ergot
-outbreak in a small French town in 1951
other hallucinogens that resemble the neurotransmitter serotonin (3)
psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine, bufotenine
psilocybin, common street name
chemical name
what is it
Aztec and Mayan people called psilocybe mushrooms what
how is it typically taken
how much needed for psychoactive effect, how much for hallucinogenic effect
onset of effects is how long and duration is how long
“shrooms” common street name
4-phosphoryl-dimethyltryptamine
-naturally occurring substance in a variety of mushrooms
-teonanactl, meaning “flesh of the gods”
-typically taken by eating mushrooms or drinking a brew containing them
4-8 mg, >15 mg for hallucinogenic effect
onset of effects is 30 minutes with a duration of 2-6 hrs
in the body, psilocybin is converted to
does tolerance occur
psilocybin effects
psilocin which is more lipid soluble and is thought to be the actual active agent
-tolerance occurs to the effects of psilocybin and cross tolerance is displayed to other hallucinogens
compared to LSD, more strongly visual, less emotionally intense, more euphoric, and less likely to produce a panic reaction
dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
-what does it look like, effects, onset, duration
-reddish bark used as snuff
-effects are rapid and short
-onset as little as 10 seconds, duration of 60 min at most
because of short duration, it became known as
the businessman’s psychedelic (would take over lunch hour), ppl on Wall street used this to trade stocks
methods of ingestion, most common method
one of most common drinks used by indigenous people
effects of DMT
may be taken as drink, but highly ineffective b/c it is rapidly metabolized by monoamine oxidase*
-ayahuasca* (DMT + additional substance), used in religious ceremonies and PTSD
-most common method of administration is inhalation/smoking
-effects: excitability, other wordly experience, numbness of the limbs, twitching of the facial muscles, nausea
bufotenine
chemical name found in what animal
side effect unique
5-hydroxy-DMT
used as a hallucinogen by indigenous peoples in the form of snuff (yopa and cohoba)
found in toads, may have something to do with the use of toads in witch’s brews?, also used in Simpson’s toads
cyanosis, skin turns purplish blue
is there evidence that it produces self administration, cpp,
little evidence in serotonergic hallucinogens for both
-not reinforcing at all
neurotransmitter norepinephrine have what kind of properties
hallucinogenic properties
neurotransmitter amphetamine has what kind of properties
combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic properties
prime example of serotegenic hallucinogens and norepinephrine hallucinogens
serotegenic –> LSD
norepinephrine –> mescaline
mescaline
the prototypical naturally occurring norepinephrine type hallucinogen
mescaline is the active alkaloid in what
the peyote cactus
contains stimulating and rewarding properties
characteristics of the cactus
small, spineless green grey pincushion* or button
looks like a pin cushion
most of the plant is underneath, the important part is above
when used in the natural condition…
in this form, the active ingredients remain
the button is sliced and often dried to form hard brownish discs
they remain potent indefinitely
is mescaline absorbed readily/passes easily?
mescaline is absorbed readily from the digestive tract but passes poorly through the blood brain barrier
how much needed to produce euphoric effects and how much for hallucinogenic
3 mg for euphoric/stimulant effects
5 mg for hallucinogenic effects
peak effects how long, effects last how long, normal duration of effect
peak effects occur in about 60 min, effects may last 4-16 hours but the avg is about 10 hrs
-effects are long lived
peyote intoxication characterized by
coloured visions in kaleidoscopic movement, often accompanied by auditory, taste, olfactory, and tactile hallucinations
-user experiences sense of weightlessness, alterations in time perception
-nausea, vomiting, headaches, and hangover
what 3 drugs are indistinguishable
mescaline, psilocybin, and LSD
since it is related to norepinephrine, mescaline produces
sympathetic arousal including dilated pupils, increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature
does tolerance develop
is there cross tolerance
yes, occurs rapidly
yes, cross tolerance to other hallucinogens
although mescaline resembles the neurotransmitter norepinephrine it seems that it
produces hallucinogenic effects in essentially the same manner as the serotonergic hallucinogens, that being an agonist action at 5-HT2 receptors –> basis of cross tolerance
past year use of mushrooms and mescaline in grades 9-12 to be what %
higher use in females or males
the peak past year of mushrooms/mescaline occurred when and was at what %
4%
higher use in males than females
peak past year use occurred in late 1990s/early 2000s and was about 17%
common methylated amphetamines (4)
-DOM or STP
-MDA
-MDMA
-Myristicin and elemicin
DOM, street name
first used as
STP
potential appetite suppressant
STP stands for
“serenity, tranquility, and peace” or “super terrific psychedelic”
doses greater than 10 mg
produces strong hallucinations lasting 16-25 hours
DOM affects what (2 things)
serotonin and dopamine
DOM is associated with what
due to what
adverse reactions/bad trips more than any other hallucinogens
due to the long duration of action and the difficulty convincing the panicked users that the effects will wear off
2 related compounds of DOM are
DOI and DOB
MDA , most common street name
first synthesized when and as what
EVE
1910, as an appetite suppressant, antidepressant, and in the treatment for Parkinson’s disease
MDA is more like a what
a typical hallucinogen as compare to an amphetamine like drug
MDA is a metabolite of
MDMA (ecstasy) and my account for many of MDMA’s effects
-MDMA is metabolized to MDA
MDA effects
enhances emotions and empathy and tends to promote a strong emotional link
MDA and MDMA are useful psychotherapeutic adjunct b/c
it allows people to get in touch with their inner feelings
root of the sassafras tree formerly used as what contains what that can converted to what
formerly used in the production of root beer but now banned b/c of carcinogenic properties, contains a substance, safrole or shikimo, that can easily be converted to MDA
MDMA, commonly known as what
was synthesized when and as what
3,4-mthylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy or XTC
synthesized in the early 1900s as a potential appetite suppressant
onset of effects occur when, duration of effects when
within one hour, duration of effects around 4-6 hours
symptoms
positive mood changes, increased energy, and higher dose hallucinations
-undesirable effects include sweating, tension in the jaw, teeth grinding
MMDMA has more toxic effects than most other hallucinogens b/c
it produces very high body temperatures (malignant hyperthermia) and dehydration, a combination that has produced some deaths
peak use when, it was legal until when
what % use amongst students
peak use mid 1980s, drug was legal until 1986
3%
MDMA causes release of what
what is better at releasing the other
serotonin and dopamine and is particularly effective in releasing serotonin, cocaine better at releasing dopamine
MDMA and MDA seem to block what
the reuptake of serotonin thereby causing a prolonged and intense period of serotonergic activation
can this cause permanent damage
yes, excess activation of serotonin and dopamine can cause permanent damage to these neurotransmitter systems
MDMA has been shown to be a potent serotonergic neurotoxin in what animals
rats, nonhuman primates, even evidence from humans
when people had used MDMA between 80-100 times compared to people who had not used the drug, what happened
the major serotonin metabolite was lower
in people who had 50 or more lifetime uses
there was reduced serotonin binding and transporter densities, effects more pronounced in women
in brain areas involving learning and memory
damaged nerve endings do not regrow which results in a permanent lowering of serotonergic functioning, underfunctioning
in brain areas involving sleep and appetite there is
excess regeneration resulting in excess serotonin release
chronic use of MDMA, problems include
memory impairment, decision making deficits, loss of impulse control, recurrent paranoia, and depression
Myristicin and elemicin,
found where
what spices are derived
are they strong or weak
taken in the form of what
initial effects include what, duration lasts how long
found in the fruit of the tree Myristica fragrans
-nutmeg and mace are spices derived from the dried seed and seed coat
-fairly weak hallucinogens
-tea
-nausea and vomiting, after 2 hours u get a weak hallucinogenic effect
mescaline show self administration and cpp?
mescaline not self administered by monkeys
-difficult to obtain self administration with this prototypical phenethylamine hallucinogen
-little evidence that it produces CPP too
-these finding similar to those with LSD
in comparison, many of the methylate amphetamine type hallucinogens, notably MDMA and MDA
are self administered and produce CPP
miscellaneous hallucinogens
4 types
-a variety of other drugs that produce hallucinogenic, psychedelic, deliriant or dissociative experiences
-phenyclidine and ketamine
-dextromethorphan
-salvia divinorum
-thujone
phencyclidine and ketamine
-called dissociative anesthetics
-produce total anesthesia, but at lower doses they produce a feeling of detachment (dissociation) from the environment and self, a type of out of body/out of world experience
-drugs also produce analgesia and amnesia
Phencyclidine developed when, marketed when under what trade name
it had the desirable effects as what but also what kind of undesirable side effects
ketamine was developed when
developed in 1926 and marketed until the 1950s under the trade name Sernyl
desirable effects as an anesthetic, undesirable effects of hallucinations and seizures and was removed from human use
in 1960s as a drug with potentially fewer unwanted side effects
most common street names for phencyclidine
angel dust
PCP, angel dust, and horse tranks (reference to the drug’s use in vet medicine as a tranquilizer)
–> sprinkle on marijuana to increase potency
PCP may be taken how
peak concentrations occur when vs. peak concentrations if smoked
orally in the form of a powder or liquid
orally takes 2 hrs, smoking takes few seconds
effects include

effects last how long but may persist for how long

euphoria, numbness (due to anesthetic effect), loss of motor coordination, catatonia (not moving, waxy flexibility), initial nystagmus (eyes moving back and forth quickly) but eventually a fixed stare (doll’s eyes), distortion of body image with the perception of parts the body, auditory hallucinations, extreme mood changes going from almost no emotional affect to outbursts, aggressive hostility, and stereotypies, violent and aggressive behaviour, out of control

effects last 4-6 hours but may persist for days

lethal dose how much
are bad trips common
2-5 times the recreational dose
occur frequently, in 80% of users
does tolerance and physical dependence develop
yes in lab animals, not really in humans b/c of infrequency with which humans subject themselves to sufficient dosing
withdrawal symptoms in rhesus monkeys include
tremors, oculomotor hyperactivity, bruxism, fearfulness, vocalizations, diarrhea, emesis and convulsions
Ketamine, street name, popular where
effects compared to PCP
Special K, popular drug at raves
similar but generally shorter, lasting 2 hours
users often describe the effects of ketamine by saying
they have entered the “K-hole”
suggested that ketamine may provide
a more useful model of psychosis and schizophrenia
PCP and K bind to what
sigma opiate receptors and antagonistic NMDA glutamate receptors
-PCP and K act as “use dependent” antagonists
when glutamate acts to open an ion channel
PCP or K attaches to a site within the channel, PCP and K would thus suppress the level of neuronal activity produced by glutamate which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS
the antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to also produce
an increase in dopaminergic activity in brain reward centers
both K and PCP are self administered by
do they support CPP
rats, monkeys, and dogs
do not support CPP
PCP and K have reinforcing and aversion (conditioned place aversion) effects
Dextromethorphan, common use, is it more or less potent than PCP/K
DM is a common cough suppressant which stimulates sigma opiate receptors and blocks NMDA receptors, the same two actions of PCP and K, cough syrup , less potent
what else is a really good cough suppressant
opiates
DM abuse occurs with who
young drug experimenters
recreational use of DM is referred to as
robo-copping, roboing, robo-tripping, b/c Robitussin is one of the main sources of abuse
medical dose is what, how much needed to produce an euphoric effect
15-30 mg, euphoric effect needs 200 mg
doses at 400 mg and 600 mg produce what
400 produce more intense euphoria, vivid, imagination, closed eye hallucinations
600 produces strong alterations in consciousness, out of body experiences, and psychotic like reactions
also some recreational use with over the counter medications, 2 examples
benadryl (cold medication)
Gravol (motion sickness)
-if you take enough Gravol you will experience a hallucinogenic effect
Salvia divinorum, member of what, also called what, is it illegal
member of the mint family, also called Diviner’s Sage, no its legal
naturally occurring plant substances that are used to produce mystical or religious experience are now commonly called
entheogens
most common method of ingestion is
chewing a quid (not effective), smoking a cigarette, or making a tea
it has a potency roughly equal to what
psilocybin containing mushrooms
active ingredient is what
salvinorin A, shown to exert an agonistic action at kappa opioid receptors, produces a hallucinatory effect
use of pure salvinorin A is reported to produce what
very strong effects, to the point that most users have no desire to use it a secon time
salvia produces CPP in what and CPA in what
CPP in zebra fish and CPA in rats
salvia controlled by what, sold where
controlled by Health Canada, sold in convenience stores
thujone, where is it found
a variety of plants including sage, but most notable in wormwood
wormwood was used to produce what
became popular where and when
the alcoholic drink Absinthe (60-80% alc content)
became popular in France in the mid 1800s
heavy consumers of Absinthe were noted to do what
act strangely and report hearing voices and seeing things
thujone is what
an GABA antaognist, and since GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter blocking its action increases neural activity which may produce convulsions
banned in NA when, but now what
1910, but now possible to obtain Absinthe that has a controlled amount of thujone
Absinthe sometimes called what
Green Fairy b/c of green liquid
common method of taking Absinthe is to do what
pour the green liquid into a small, tulip shaped glass, then place a special slotted spoon on the glass and put a sugar cube that has been soaked in Absinthe on it. sugar cube is ignited, burned for awhile and then dropped into the Absinthe and finally water is poured in to douse the flames.
showed in what movie
Johnny Depp from Hell, he takes opium and Absinthe
Oscar Wilde characterizes how people feel about Green Fairy
after 1st glass, you see things as you wish they were
after 2nd, you see them as they are not
after 3rd, you see them as they really are, which is the most horrible thing in the world
x

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