Hodson 1301 Exam 2

Salts of group 1 cations (except Li) and the NH4 cation are?
Soluable
Nitrates, acetates and perchlorates are
soluable
Salts of silver, lead and mercury are
insoluable
Chlorides, bromides and iodides are
soluable
Carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, oxides and hydroxides are
in soluable
includes
Ca 2, Sr 2, Ba 2 slightly)
Sulfates are _____ except Calcium, sstrontium and barium
soluable
Redox rule #1
sm of o.n.=0 for a compound. sum = ionic charge for an ion
redox rule #2
Group 1a elements o.n. = +1
Group 2a elements o.n. = +2
Redox rule #3
In compounds, F has o.n. = -1
Redox rule #4
H has an o.n = +1
Redox rule #5
In compounds, O has o.n.=-2
Redox rule #6
in binary compounds, Group 7a has an on = -1 group 6a = -2 and group 5a = -3
Oxidation
Electrons are lost
Reduction
Electrons are gained
Three types of reactions
Precipitation, Redox and acid base
Strong Acids and Bases are
Strong electrolytes
Completely dissolved into Ions
An aqueous solution contains
a mixture of water (solvent) and another substance (solute)
Boyle’s Law
P1V1 = P2V2
Charles Law
V1/T1 = V2/T2
AVogadro’s law
V1/n1 = V2/n2

avogadros law…involves moles!

General Gas Equation
P1V1/n1T1 = P2V2/n2T2
Ideal gas equation
PV=nRT
Mole Fraction
xa = na/ntot
Molar Mass =
mRT/PV

mass/moles

Density
MP/RT or Mass/V
1 atm
760 mm
Dalton’s law states
in gas mixtures the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone under the same conditions
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Continous Motion
volume is negligble
no attractive forces, elastic collisions
average energy is proportional to absolute temperature
heavier particles move slower
Diffusion
spontaneous intermingling of one substance with result of translational motion of molecules
Effusion
movement of gas through a tiny opening into an area of low pressure
x

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