Holt – chapter 5

anion
ion with a negative charge
binary ionic compound
an ionic compound hat consists of cations of one element and the anions of another element
cation
an ion with a positive charge
electroneutrality
condition of having equal numbers of positive and negatie charges
isoelectric
having the same electron configuration as another atom
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge because it has gained electrons
ionic compound
any chemcal compound that is composed of oppositely charged ions
octet rule
tendency of atoms to gain or lose electrons so that their outer S and P orbitals have 8 electrons
subscript
a whole number written below and to right of an element’s symbol that denotes the number of atoms in the formula
coulombic force
the attraction or repulsion between two objects that have electric charges
crystal lattice
repetitive geometric arrangement of points in space about which atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged to form a crystal structure
halide
a salt that is composed of cations combined with anions of one of the halogen elements
ionic bond
the coulumbic force of attactions between ions of opposite charge
lattice energy
energy released when well separated atoms, ions, or molecultes come together to form a crystal
unit cell
simplest repeating unit in a crystal call
anhydrous
without water
hydrate
ionic compound that contains precise numbers of water moldecules in its crystal lattice
mineral
naturally occurring inorganic substance that has definite composition and ordered structure
oxidation number
number assigned to an atom in a polyatomic or molecular compound based on an assumption of complete transfer of electrons
oxyanion
negative polyatomic ion containing oxygen
polyatomic ions
electrically charged group of 2 or more chemically bonded atoms that functions as a single ion
salt
ionic compound that is composed of cations bonded to anions, than oxide hydroxide
silicate
any compound containing silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals and possibly hydrogen
metals tend to form ______
cations
metals tend to form ______
cations
nonmetals tend to form _______
anions
opposite charges of anions and cations form a tightly packed substance of bonded ions called a _______________
Crystal structure
Salts have (high/low) melting & boiling points and usually (do/do not) conduct electricity in a solid state
High melting and boiling points
Usually Do NOT conduct electricity
Salts conduct electricity when __________________
melted or dissolved in water.
By losing an electron, a metal atom becomes (anion/cation)
cation
A __________________ is a negatively charged polyatomic ion containing oxygen.
oxyanion
______________ are compounds that contain water molecules within the crystal lattice
Hydrates
_____________ ions are found in silicates
Polyatomic ions
_____________ a group of 2 or more atoms bonded together that function as a single unit.
A _____ of_________ is needed to break chemical bonds between atoms. _________ is released when bonds form between atoms.
Input of Energy
Energy is released
______ are electrically charged particles that have different chemical properties that their parent atoms.
Ions
Some atoms may gain or lose electrons to acheive electron configurations that are _______________ with a __________
ISOELECTRIC with a NOBLE GAS.
Formula for
Calcium Chloride
Formula for
Magnesium Oxide
Formula for
Sodium Iodide
Formula of
Calcium Sulfide
Formula for
Potassium Nitride
Formula for
Copper(I) bromide
Formula for
Aluminum Nitride
Formula for
Iron (II) oxide
Formula for
Iron (III) oxide
Formula for
lead (IV) oxide
Formula for
tin(II) oxide
iron(III)chloride
niobium (V) chloride
manganese (II) iodide
silver (I) sulfide
Group 17 elements include the simple anions F-, Cl-, Br_, I-, and Ar- which are called ________
Halides
Where are the weak points in a crystal?
(center or edges)
edges
Most electron affinities are (positive/negative)
negative
5 Characteristics of ionic compounds
1) solids at room temperature
2) hard and brittle
3) high melting points and boiling points
4) do not conduct electricity in solid form
5) good conductors of electricity in liquid state and when dissolved in water.
penta-
5
hemi-
2
hexa-
6
hepta-
7
x

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