Honors Chemistry

visible light spectrum
450-700 nm
temperature conversionfrom C-K
C+273 = K
temperature conversion from C-F
9/5C=F-32
centimeteres – inches
2.54cm=1in
pound – gram
1 pound = 454 grams
quart – liters
1 qt = .946L
giga, mega, kilo
E9, E6, E3.
deci, centi, milli, micro, nano
E-1, E-2, E-3, E-6, E-9.
metal in water equation
METAL mass x spicific heat capacity x temperature change = WATER m x 4.184J x temperature change
how chorates, hydroxides, carbonates dissociate
chlorides + 02, oxides + H2O, oxides + CO2
always soluble
NO3- (nitrate) C2H3O2-(acetate), alkali metals
carbonate, nitrate, phosphate, chlorate, sulfate, ammonium, hydroxide
CO3 2-, NO3 -, PO4 3-. ClO3 -, SO4 2-, NH4 +, OH -.
usually soluble (aq)
Cl-, Br-, I-, SO4 2-,
usually insoluble (s)
S 2-, CO3 2-, PO4 3-, OH –
per-ate, ate, ite, hypo-ite
one more oxygen, base, one less oxygen, two less oxygen (SAME CHARGE)
lattice energy equation and meaning (Q in absolute value)
LE=kQ1Q2/d (Q1= one cation charge, Q2= one anion chargee, d=distance from nuclues of cation and anion)
order of gaining electrons for isoelectronics
p,s,d, core
strong acids
HI(hydroiodic), HBr(hydrobromic), HClO3(hydrochloric), HClO4 (perchloric) HNO3(nitric), H2SO4(sulfuric), HCl(hydrochloric),
basic/acidic anhydrydes
basic = metal, acidic = nonmetal
number of bonds for B, Al, and Be
B and Al make only 3, Be makes only 2
how to write anion lewis dot diagram
BRACKETS AND CHARGE IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER!
deffinition of atomic weight and mass number
number of protons (and electrons), number of nuclueons (p and n)
Avagadro’s number
6.023 E23
coffee cup calorimeter and bomb calorimeter equations
Cp x deltaT x m (of everything), C x DeltaT
Dalton

-atoms were solid spheres of different colors

-law of nature: expination for re-occuring events

-conservation of matter: matter isnt gained or lost

-definite porportions: same porportion of element by mass in compound

-law of multiple porportions: ratio in binary compounds are all in porportions

Atomic Theory:

-atoms are smallest indistructable matter

-atoms of the same elements are the same (+vise versa)

-atoms combine in varying porportions forming compounds

-atoms rearrange their orientations in chemical reactions

Thomson
plum pudding model, tested with cathode ray tube and discovered subatomic particles
Rutherford
bombarded gold and realized that some electrons bounced straight back! (discovered nucleus)
Chadwich
discovered charges of subatomic particles
Milikan
found charge of electron by using different oil drops and took the smallest out of the ratio!
Gibbs equation
deltaG = deltaH -T x delta s (kj and kelvin!)