Honors Chemistry Ch. 1-2

Organic Chemistry
The study of most carbon-containing compounds
Inorganic Chemistry
The study of nonorganic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals (organometallics)
Physical Chemistry
The study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy.
Analytical Chemistry
The identification of the components and composition of materials.
Biochemistry
The study of substances and processes occurring in living things
Theoretical Chemistry
The use of math and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds.
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A laboratory in a major university surveys all the reactions involving bromine.

Basic Research
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A pharmaceutical company explores a disease in order to produce a better medicine.

Technological and/or applied research
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A scientists investigates the cause of the ozone hole to find a way to stop the loss of the ozone layer.

Applied Research
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A pharmaceutical company discovers a more efficient method of producing a drug.

Technological and/or applied research
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A chemical company develops a new biodegradable plastic.

Technological and/or applied research
Basic research, applied research, or technological research?

A laboratory explores the use of ozone to inactivate bacteria in a drinking-water system

Applied research
Microstructures
Things too tiny to be seen with the unaided eye
Chemical
Any substance that has a definite composition
Chemistry
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the process that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes.
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Iron ore

Heterogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Quartz

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Granite

Heterogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Energy drink

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Oil-and-vinegar dressing

Heterogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Salt

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Rainwater

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Nitrogen

Homogeneous
Atom
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element.
Compound
Made of two or more chemically bonded elements
How is energy involved in chemical and physical changes?
Heat/other forms of energy change the physical appearance or chemical composition of an object, but energy is not lost or gained; it just assumes a new form (law of conservation of energy).
A horizontal row of elements in a periodic table is called a
Period.
Elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity are
Metals.
Elements that are poor conductors of heat and energy are
Nonmetals.
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table is called a
Group or family.
The ability of a substance to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets is called
Malleability.
Is an element that is soft and easy to cut cleanly w/a knife likely to be a nonmetal or metal?
Metal
The elements in Group 18 are called
noble gases.
At room temperature, most metals are
Solid.
What do the elements of the same group in the periodic table have in common?
Similar chemical properties
What is the difference between a family of elements and elements in the same period?
A family of elements are the elements in the same column whereas elements in the same period are in the same row.
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Sugar

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Iron fillings

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Plastic Wrap

Homogeneous
Heterogeneous or homogeneous?

Cement sidewalk

Heterogeneous
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

A forensic scientist uses chemistry to find information at the scene of a crime.

Analytical Chemistry
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

A scientist uses a computer model to see how an enzyme will function.

Biochemistry or Theoretical Chemistry
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

A professor explores the reactions that take place in a human liver

Biochemistry
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

An oil company scientist tries to design a better gasoline.

Organic Chemistry
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

An anthropologist tries to find out the nature of a substance in a mummy’s wrap.

Analytical Chemistry
Select the most appropriate branch of chemistry from organic, analytical, biochemistry, and theoretical chemistry

A pharmaceutical company examines the protein on a coating of a virus.

Biochemistry or Analytical Chemistry
Extensive Properties
Properties that depend on the amount of matter present i.e. mass, weight, volume, etc.
Intensive Properties
Properties that do NOT depend on the amount of matter present, i.e. density, chemical properties, melting point, boiling point, etc.
System
A specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.
Hypothesis
A testable statement.
Model
An explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related. May be visual, verbal, or mathematical.
Theory
A broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena.
Quantity
Something that has magnitude, size, or amount; not the same as a measurement.
SI
Le Systeme International d’Unites; adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures commonly used by all chemists.
Tera-
Abbreviation: T
Exponential Factor: 10^12
Giga
Unit abbreviation: G
Exponential Factor: 10^9
Mega-
Unit abbreviation: M
Exponential factor: 10^6
Micro

Unit abbreviation:  ?

Exponential factor:  10^-6

Nano
Unit abbreviation: n
Exponential factor: 10^-9
Pico
Unit abbreviation: p
Exponential factor: 10^-12
Derived units
Combinations of SI base units

Ex: units squared/cubed, density, kg/mol (molar mass), joule

Conversion factor
A ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other. ALL conversion factors equal ONE.
Dimensional Analysis
A mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements.
Accuracy
The closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured.
Precision
The closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way.
Percentage Error
Calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100.
Significant figures
Consists of all the digits known w/certainty plus one final digit.
Directly Proportional
Two quantities are directly proportional if dividing one by the other gives a constant value.
Equations for Direct Proportions
y/x=k

y=kx

Direct Proportions form which kind of line on a graph?
Straight
Inversely Proportional
Two quantities are inversely proportional to each other if their product is constant.
Equation for Inverse Proportions
xy=k
Inverse Proportions form which kind of line on a graph?
Hyperbola; curved line