Honors Chemistry Final

R for atm
0.08206
R for kPa
8.3
R for mmHg
62.4
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
Reaction: One product
Synthesis
Reaction: >1 prouduct, 1 reactant
Decompostion
Reaction: >1 Product, >Reactant, Both reactants compounds
Double replacement
Reaction: >1 Product, >1 Reactant, both reactants compounds, (One starts with H, One ends in OH, H2O as a product)
Acid/Base
Reaction: >1 Product, >1 Reactant, Not both reactants are compounds, O2 as a reactand, produces CO2 and H2O
Combustion
Reaction: >1 Proudct, >1 Reactant, Not both reatants compounds, A+BC=
Single Replacement
AB: Turns blue litmis red
Acid
AB: sour
Acid
AB: corrosive
Acid
AB:Produces H+ ions
Acid
AB:Bitter taste
Base
AB: Slippery
Base
AB: turns red litmis blue
Base
Ph> 7
Base
PH<7
Acid
PH=7
neutral
Arrhenius Acid
Releases H+ in aqueous solution
Arrhenius Base
Produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
Bronsted Lowry Acid
Proton (H+) Donor
Bronsted Lowry Base
H+ acceptors
conjugate base
Acid
conjugate acid
base
Endo
Heat is reactant
Exo
Heat is Product
What do chemical equations balance to satisfy?
The law of conservation of Mass
When energy is released during a reaction, it is absorbed by…
The surroundings
Enthalpy
The heat of reaction for a chemical reaction ?H
If Enthalpy is positive…
the reaction is endothermic
Entropy
A measure of chaos in a system, ?S
Free energy
?G, spontanaity
Calculate pH
pH=-log[H+]
Calculate pOH
pOH=-log[OH-]
pH+pOH=
14
[H+]=
10^(-pH)
[OH-]=
10^(-pOH)
[H=][OH-]=
1.00*10^-14
covalent
non-metal + non-metal
ionic
metal + non-metal
metalic
metal + metal
If There is High Chaos…
?S+
If there is low chaos…
?S-
T=?H – ?S
?G=?H-T?S
?G>0
Not Spontanious
?G>0
Spontanious
?G=0
spontainous both directions
q=mC?T
q=thermal engergy transfered
m=mass of substance(s)
C=Specific Heat of substance
?T=Change in temp.
x

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