Honors Chemistry Unit 6

What is a polymer?
large molecules made of repeating units of smaller molecules
What is the name for the polymer formed from ethylene?
polyethylene
What is the unit for the chain invovled with the production of PVC?
Poly vinyl chloride
What is chain growth?
builds from the end
What is an initiator?
starts the polymerization of monomers
What is crosslinking?
bonds between chains
What is a monomer?
little units that link together to make polymers
What is the unit that makes up polyethylene?
ethylene
Styrene is the base unit for what polymer commonly refered to as styrafoam?
polystyrene
Compare the formation of long chains from the units (Styrene, Vinyl, Chloride, Ethylene, Propylene)used in the making of plastics. How are they the same how are they different?
form bonds the same way; side chains are different
How are Amino Acids and Proteins related?
amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What does RNA stand for?
Rinonucleic Acid
What chemically differs between DNA and RNA?
RNA has an extra OH
What part of the RNA makes it less stable to form large chains
the extra OH
What part of the DNA is labeled as the 31?
Base
What part of the DNA is labeled as the 51?
Acid
When two chains of DNA combine to form the double helix how do they combine?
Base combines with acid, 31 lines up with 51
What holds the two chains of the double helix together?
Hydrogen bond
What base has the same main structure as Guanine?
Adenine
What base has the same main structure as Thymine?
Cytosine
What base will Cytosine attach to?
Guanine
What base will Adenine attach to?
Thymine
Why do cerain bases pair up while other bases will not pair up?
the number of hydrogen bonds differ
How many Hyrdrogen bonds will Adenine form?
2
How many Hydrogen bonds will Cytosine form?
3
How many Hydrogen bonds will Guanine form?
3
How many Hydrogen bonds will Thymine form?
2
What are the two functional groups that are on ALL amino acids?
amine and carboxylic acid
What do we call the R group that varies from one Amino Acid to another
side chain
What do we call the bond that forms betwen amino acids when forming a protein?
Peptide bond
What affects the shape of a protein
side chains
What does it mean if a protein has been denatured?
the shape is taken away
What can cause a protein to be denatured?
Heat, pH, free radicals
What are 3-4 things you can do to help your body in stabilizing your internal environment to prevent denaturing?
Shivering, sweating, hydration, eating right
compare sugars and starches
sugars – monomers/starches – polymers/sugars make up starches
what are the two main simple sugars we deal with?
glucose and fructose
what is the difference between an aldose and a ketose
aldose – aldehyde/ketose – ketone (where the double bond is)
what is the most common aldose we work with?
Glucose
What is the most common ketose we work with?
Fructose
what are monosaccharides?
1 simple sugar
what are disaccharides?
complex sugar (2 simple sugars)
what are polysaccharides?
starches (complex sugar, more than one disaccharides)
Sucrose is a disaccharide containing which two sugars?
fructose and glucose