Human Nutrition- Chapter 8

Bomb calorimeter

An instrument that measues the heat energy released when foods are burned, thus providing an estimate of the potential energy of the food.

 

  • calor= heat
  • metron= measure

Appetite
The integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that initiates or delays eating.
Hunger
The painful sensation caused by lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
Hypothalamus
A brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite.
Satiation
The feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. Satiation determines how much food is consumed during a meal.
Satiety
The feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the the next meal. Satiety detercmines how much time passes between meals.
Neuropeptide Y
A chemical produced in the brain that stimulates appetite, diminishes energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
Thermogenesis
The generation of heat; used in physiology and nutrition studies as an index of how much energy the body is expending.
Basal metabolism
The energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions: after a 12 hour fast and restful sleep, without any physical activity or emotional excitement, and in a comfortable setting. It is usually expressed as kcalories per kilogram bofy weight per hour.
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Similar to the basal metabolic rate (BMR), a measure of the energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity. Connsequently, the RMR is slightly higher than the BMR.
Lean body mass
The body minus its fat content.
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
An estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested ingested nutrients); also called the specific dynamic effect (SDE) of food or the specific dynamic activity (SDA) of food. The sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating is known as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT).
Adaptive thermogenesis
Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment such as extreme cold and to physiological events such as overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status.
Body mass index (BMI)
An index of a person’s weight in relation to height; determined by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters).
Underweight
Body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI below 18.5.
Overweight
Body weight above some standard of weight that is usually in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI 25-29.9.
Obese
Overweight with adverse health effects; BMI is 30 or higher.
Intra-abdominal fat
Fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs, as opposed to the fat stored directly under the skin (subcutaneous fat).
Central obesity
Excess fat around the trunk of the body, also called abdominal fat or upper-body fat.
Waist circumference
An anthropometric measurement used to assess a person’s abdominal fat.
Insulin resistance
The condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose; a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes.
Inflammation
An immunological response to cellular injury characterized by an increase in white blood cells.