IB CHEM

Significant Figures
The digits in the measurement up to and including the first uncertain digit
Random Errors
An eqaul probability to be too high or too low when an experimenter approximates a reading.
Systematic Errors
Systematic errors occur as a result of poor experimental design or procedure, but these errors do not decrease by repeating the experiments.
Preise measurements
have small random errors and reproducible in repeated trials
Accurate measurements
have small systematic errors and give a result close to the accepted value
Functional Uncertainty
absolute uncertainty/measured value
percentage uncertainty
(absolute uncertainty/measured value)x100
percentage error
[(accepted value – experimental value) / accepte value]x100
Independable Variable
Variable that does not change, which plotted in the horizontal axis of the graph
Dependable Variable
Variable that changes which is plotted on the vertical axis and gives an indication of the reliability of the measurement
Extrapolation
A line that has to be extended beyond the range of masurements on the graph
Interpolation
The process of assuming that the trend line applies between two points
Volume of a gas
PV = nRT
x

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