# IB Chemistry Chapter 3 Terms

 Chemical Stoichiometry
 the calculation of the quantities of material consumed and produced in chemical reactions
 Mass Spectrometer
 an instrument used to determine the relative masses of atoms by the deflection of their ions on a magnetic field
 Average Atomic Mass
 a value reflecting the average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes composing the element
 Mole
 the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure ^12C; Avogadro’s number. One mole represents 6.022 x 10^23 units.
 the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure ^12C, equal to 6.022 x 10^23
 Molar Mass
 the mass in grams of one mole of molecules or formula units of a substance; also called molecular weight
 Mass Percent
 the percent by mass of a component of a mixture or a given element in a compound
 Empirical Formula
 the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
 Molecular Formula
 the exact formula of a molecule, giving the types of atoms and number of each type
 Chemical Equation
 a representation of a chemical reaction showing the relative numbers of reactant and product molecules
 Reactants
 a starting substance in a chemical reaction; it appears to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
 Products
 a substance resulting from a chemical reaction. It is shown to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation.
 Balancing a Chemical Equation
 the same number of each type of atom must be present in the product and reactant sides of the equation
 Mole Ratio
 the ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation
 Stoichiometric Quantities
 quantities of reactants mixed in exactly the correct amounts so that all are used up at the same time
 Haber Process
 the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, carried out at high pressure and high temperature with the aid of a catalyst
 Limiting Reactant (Reagent)
 the reactant that is completely consumed when a reaction is run to completion
 Theoretical Yield
 the maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
 Percent Yield
 the actual yield of a product as a percentage of the theoretical yield
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